SM16 Program

Sessions, Panels, Posters, Plenaries, Committee Meetings, and Special Events

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Posters

  • Astronomy Poster

      • Exploring Temperature in Astronomy Demonstration Videos

      • PST1A01
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Kevin Lee, Cliff Bettis

      • Type: Poster
      • AU is a series of short videos of physical demonstrations appropriate for use in introductory astronomy classes. Considerable effort is made to make the videos interactive through embedded peer instruction questions and accompanying worksheets. This poster will illustrate recently developed videos involving temperature and their interactive mechanisms. These materials are publicly available at http://astro.unl.edu and on YouTube on the UNL Astronomy Channel. They are funded through NSF grant #1245679.
      • Incorporating the Asteroid Light Curve Database into Introductory Mechanics

      • PST1A03
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Jordan Steckloff, Steven Dail, Rebecca Lindell

      • Type: Poster
      • Elementary Mechanics is typically motivated with examples on the Earth that are familiar to students. However, such examples are subject to nonideal conditions (e.g. air drag, rolling friction, noninertial reference frames), and their use may unintentionally reinforce incorrect schema that students have on their underlying physical processes (e.g. moving objects naturally come to rest without a driving force). Asteroid motion is not subject to friction, representing an ideal situation for applying Newton’s laws. Additionally, students are typically unfamiliar with asteroid mechanics and therefore possess fewer preconceived notions of how asteroids should behave. Here we present how we incorporated the Minor Planet Center’s most recent published dataset of asteroid spin periods and radii (obtained from asteroid light curve studies) into an activity on gravitation and circular motion. We guide students through the scientific process: collecting data, identifying a trend and hypothesizing its cause, and making and testing a prediction.
      • Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

      • PST1A05
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Kimberly Coble, Dominique Martin, Patrycia Hayes, Tom Targett Lynn R. Cominsky, Janelle Bailey

      • Type: Poster
      • Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills. During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre- and post-content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. When switching to an active mode of learning, students reported some dissatisfaction with "having to do more work" but made greater learning gains.
      • (Don't) Hit My Planet! - Periapsis from Instantaneous Position and Velocity

      • PST1A07
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Philip Blanco, Carl Mungan

      • Type: Poster
      • Long-range radar detects an unidentified space object at an altitude of 6.53 Earth radii heading towards us at a radial velocity of 3.86 km/s, and traveling across the sky at 1.54 km/s (corrected for the Earth’s rotation). What is its origin? Possibilities include a ballistic missile launched from another continent, an Earth-orbiting satellite, an asteroid or comet. Will it hit us, and if so, what velocity change is required to deflect it? This poster presents a physics-based method for students to determine the closest-approach (periapsis) distance of any unpowered space object, without having to calculate its detailed orbit. We apply this method to a few examples of the many possible astrodynamics problems that are accessible to introductory physics and astronomy students familiar with conservation laws.
      • Incorporating Exoplanet Radial Velocity Detections to Teach Simple Harmonic Motion

      • PST1A02
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Jordan Steckloff, Rebecca Lindell

      • Type: Poster
      • All planets and stars orbit about their mutual center of mass (barycenter). Although, most planetary systems cannot be directly imaged using current technologies, the orbital motion of the host star induces a detectable doppler shift in its emitted light. Because the star’s circular motion is generally unresolvable, its motion instead appears to be a mass undergoing simple harmonic motion along the line of the observer. Thus, this radial velocity method (RVM) of detecting exoplanets is an excellent method to be understood as a simple harmonic oscillator. However, whereas most harmonic oscillators are understood by detecting the change in their position, the RVM instead directly detects the velocity of the oscillator. We describe how the mass and orbital radius of the orbiting planet can be determined by measuring the harmonic velocity of the star, and understanding the forces that contribute to its acceleration. Suggestions for instruction will also be provided.
      • Teaching Inquiry in Nigeria: The West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers

      • PST1A06
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Linda Strubbe, Bonaventure Okere, Meiling Deng, Anabele Pardi, Jielai Zhang

      • Type: Poster
      • The West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers (WAISSYA) is a week-long introduction to astronomy for science undergraduates and teachers from West Africa, held twice so far in Nigeria (2013 and 2015), and organized by astronomers from Canada, Nigeria, Germany, and Gabon. Goals of the school are to exchange ideas about teaching and learning science in West Africa and North America, and to increase interest in astronomy in West Africa. We design and lead activities to teach astronomy content, promote students' self-identity as scientists, and encourage students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. Prior to the 2015 school year, we held a three-day workshop for WAISSYA instructors to learn about evidence-based teaching strategies. Here we describe the school’s curriculum, share results from evaluations of the effectiveness of the program, and discuss longer-term plans for future schools and collaboration.
  • Labs/Apparatus

      • Dynamic Simulation of the Induced Polarization Effects by Mirrors

      • PST1C01
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Sarah Knudsen, Anna Petrova-Mayor

      • Type: Poster
      • We designed a dynamic simulation to promote students' understanding of theinduced polarization effects by mirrors for the practical case of a beam scanner. The state of polarization (SOP) of the reflected light strongly depends on the design of the mirrors (thickness, index of refraction, and order of the thin film layers) and their azimuthal orientation. Motivated by our research of an azimuth-over-elevation beam scanner for atmospheric polarization lidar we also incorporated a quarter waveplate to correct for the total induced polarization. The simulation is constructed by applying the Fresnel equations and Jones calculus and allows the user to adjust the parameters of the mirrors and the geometry of the included optical elements. This simulation is intended to be used for in-class demonstrations and for validating experimental results.
      • Improving Students' Understanding of Lock-in Amplifiers

      • PST1C03
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Seth DeVore, Alexandre Gauthier, Jeremy Levy, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • A lock-in amplifier is a versatile instrument frequently used in physics research. However, many students struggle with the basic operating principles of a lock-in amplifier which can lead to a variety of difficulties. To improve students' understanding, we have developed and evaluated a research-based tutorial which utilizes a computer simulation of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial is based on a field-tested approach in which students realize their difficulties after predicting the outcome of simulated experiments involving a lock-in amplifier and check their predictions using the simulated lock-in amplifier. Then, the tutorial guides and helps students develop a coherent understanding of the basics of a lock-in amplifier. The tutorial development involved interviews with physics faculty members and graduate students and iteration of many versions of the tutorial with professors and graduate students. The student difficulties and the development and assessment of the research-based tutorial are discussed. Supported by the NSF.
      • Introductory Physics Laboratory Writing Conferences

      • PST1C05
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Dwain Desbien, Thomas O'kuma

      • Type: Poster
      • The Introductory Physics Laboratory Writing Conferences (IPLWC) is one of the two major components of the ATE Workshop for Physics Faculty project. Since 2011, nine IPLWCs conferences were conducted. The invited participants to the IPLWCs were experienced two-year college and high school physics faculty. Some of the IPLWCs were dedicated to types of laboratory activities, such as computational activities, conceptual activities, video activities, and others. Many of the developed activities were tested (and later modified) at the institutions of the IPLWC participants that developed them. In this poster, we will display information about the IPLWCs and some of the developed activities.
      • Measuring and Visualizing Fields and Current Flow

      • PST1C07
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Scott Dudley, Sidney Mau, Francesco Insulla, Rachel Maerz, Anthony Ferraro

      • Type: Poster
      • Using a sheet of current we show how to measure and visualize the electricand magnetic fields around the sheet, and the flow of current in the sheet.
      • Normal Modes for Loaded String: Accounting for the String's Mass

      • PST1C09
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Alan DeWeerd
      • Type: Poster
      • The normal modes of a string loaded with evenly spaced masses are analogous to the modes of one-dimensional lattice vibrations, if the mass of the string is negligible. However, experiments show slight deviations from the idealized behavior because of the string's mass. Methods of accounting for the mass of the string are discussed. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data for the "monatomic" and "diatomic" strings.
      • Speed of Light: Practice Makes Almost Perfect

      • PST1C11
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Peter Odom, Joshua Williams, Lief Peterson, Elena Gregg

      • Type: Poster
      • In this experiment, the speed of light is measured using the Foucault method. A laser is focused through a beam splitter onto a rotating mirror that directs the beam onto a fixed mirror reflecting it back toward the rotating mirror and back through the beam splitter. By rotating the mirror at a known angular velocity first CW, then CCW, while measuring the displacement of the image produced by the reflected beam, the speed of light is measured at 3.02 x 108 m/s—a value only 0.7% larger than the accepted value of 2.998 x 108 m/s. Modifications of experimental setting show significant progress in the accuracy of the measurements. The initial attempt resulted in roughly 32% error; the second iteration narrowed accuracy to roughly 5% error; the last iteration yielded the above mentioned result. Factors contributing to the improvements in accuracy (i.e. freedom, creativity, and persistence) are discussed.
      • Teaching Fluid Dynamics Using a Transparent Circulatory System Model*

      • PST1C13
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Bradley Moser, Kate Hruby, David Grimm, James Vesenka

      • Type: Poster
      • Students have substantial difficulties applying physics concepts to anatomy and physiology (and vice versa). We have developed a mature kinesthetic learning circulatory system model, which requires students to apply multiple concepts (conservation of mass, the Hagen-Poiseuille principle, Reynolds Number and basic circuit theory) to understanding how the cardiovascular system functions. Kinesthetic learning allow students to manipulate different aspects of the simulated system. We have designed an inexpensive circulatory system model made from transparent plastic tubing, branched connectors, balloons, and pumps that enabled students to see the fluid travel at different speeds (visually) and pressures (through pressure sensors) simulating the cardiovascular system. The speeds and pressures are in reasonable agreement with theory. Noticeably absent from this discussion is the Bernoulli principle, often misapplied and can be demonstrated to play little role in the observed behavior of the pressure changes in our model system.
      • An Easily Assembled Spectrograph for the Intermediate Lab

      • PST1C15
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Timothy Grove
      • Type: Poster
      • We have been using low-cost spectrographs called shoebox spectrographs fora few years. In the process of our study, we decided to make a spectrograph using the same basic optical design (as the shoebox spectrograph) but with quality optical parts. This spectrograph was found to be easily aligned by students and enables intermediate and advanced students to study molecular spectral lines as well as the spectral line differences between hydrogen and deuterium.
      • Best Practices for Intermediate Physics Laboratory Experiences Using E-CLASS

      • PST1C17
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Patricia Allen, John Cockman

      • Type: Poster
      • Undergraduate physics majors are often take an introductory lab sequence and a capstone lab experience, usually during their last year. Many in the PER (Physics Education Research) community have analyzed best practices to improve experiences at each end of a physics major’s education. At institutions such as Appalachian State University, majors are required to take an intermediate lab course. However, little guidance is available to instructors on best practices for an intermediate lab experience to bridge intro and advanced lab courses. Efforts are under way at Appalachian State to determine best practices for such an intermediate lab course. E-CLASS (Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey – Experimental) has been found to provide effective and informative feedback for both lab activities and pedagogical approaches. The authors present E-CLASS results for multiple sections of an intermediate lab course and how these results are used to identify best practices and areas for improvement. The impact of E-CLASS-inspired modifications will also be presented and discussed.
      • Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio: Laser Focused on Perfection

      • PST1C02
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Peter Odom, Joshua Williams, Lief Peterson, Elena Gregg

      • Type: Poster
      • The charge-to-mass ratio of an electron was measured using J.J. Thomson’s method. An electron gun generated and accelerated a beam of electrons inside a helium-filled vacuum bulb. The bulb was surrounded by a Helmholtz coil producing a magnetic field to force the electron beam into a circular path. By measuring the current through the Helmholtz coil, voltage across the electron gun and diameter of electron path, the charge-to-mas ratio of electrons was calculated. By using various methods to measure the diameter of the path (visual versus laser), values were found between 7% and 0.8% of the accepted value. A decrease in the standard deviation of measurements when using lasers was predicted and confirmed. Methods by which measurements were improved are discussed, chiefly among them being the implementation of aforementioned lasers. The unprecedented success resulted from being permitted more freedom and being allowed deviation from specific lab manual instructions.
      • Instrumented Trebuchet

      • PST1C04
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Joel Berlinghieri
      • Type: Poster
      • A trebuchet is a siege engine used in the Middle Ages to frustrate a castle’s defenses. A trebuchet’s design is focused on the efficient transfer of potential energy stored in a counter weight to kinetic energy in a projectile that is launched at a chosen angle. Projectile maximum range or maximum height might be a goal. For the past six years The Citadel with Google sponsorship has hosted a trebuchet event called “Storm The Citadel.” Elementary, middle, high school, college, and corporate teams compete in various categories at accuracy, precision, and distance events. The Physics Department hosts workshops on the physics of the trebuchet with an explanation of each element of the various trebuchet designs and why they are needed. High school and corporate teams usually use phenomenological data to characterize their engine. That is adjust one variable repeatedly and shoot holding other variables constant. We have taken one design and instrumented the unit to measure angular position, velocity, and acceleration and linear position, velocity, and acceleration and forces at strategic points on the trebuchet. The data collected are used to develop insight into the connection between trebuchet settings and engine dynamics and projectile kinematics.
      • Ionizing Radiation Experiments as a Mobile Lab

      • PST1C06
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Jan Beks, Ad Beune, Ad Mooldijk, Rob van Rijn

      • Type: Poster
      • Initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Education, the Ioniserende Stralen Practicum at the Freudenthal Institute, Utrecht University, developed a mobile lab around 45 years ago. While currently equipped with three mobile labs, students from the tenth through twelfth grades throughout the Netherlands familiarize themselves with radionuclides, the produced ionizing radiation and some of the processes involved. We describe the unique character of the experiments in their simple and easy to troubleshoot set-ups. The schools are offered closed lab instructions or open lab instructions, in which students design experiments using the limitations as given by the provided lab equipment. We will discuss (i) how the experiments support a Physics curriculum, (ii) our unique approach of offering labs regarding ionizing radiation, and (iii) evidence of their positive impact on student concepts. In addition, we will share some early plans for implementing the use of smartphones and tablets to acquire and process data.
      • Mini-Lab Implementation to Enhance the Undergraduate Experience in Experimental Physics

      • PST1C08
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Colleen Countryman, Saroj Dangi, Laura Clarke

      • Type: Poster
      • After three introductory-level classes (with traditional labs) and before a project-based senior lab course, physics majors take seven physics lecture courses that have no lab component. Over the last few terms, we have worked towards addressing this issue in several of these courses by providing a single lab experience per course, innately connected to the classroom work. These mini-labs replace traditional homework assignments for one week in the term. They are developed and taught by a teaching assistant associated with a department-wide shared user research facility where the experiments are also housed, thus minimizing the effort needed by the instructor. Ultimately our goal is to have each student experience one or two mini-lab activities per term. From these experiences we intend to systematically strengthen student confidence in their experimental ability and demonstrate real world connections with the material in the classroom. We will present promising attitudinal results from the study.*
      • Single Photon Investigations Using a Low-Cost Coincidence Counter

      • PST1C10
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Mark Masters, Kakathi Tummala, Alyssa Robison, Samantha Minick, Tanner Heral

      • Type: Poster
      • Single photon investigations are very popular for a variety of experimental investigations in quantum mechanics. These investigations vary from Grainger’s experiment to demonstrate that the photon is a particle, to Bell’s inequality, to single photon interference. Unfortunately, these investigations are not low-cost, the chief expense being the single photon detectors, followed by a lot of optical components. One area in which there has been some cost savings has been the coincidence counting units. As our start to driving down the costs of these investigations, we present the development and testing of a low-cost coincidence counter (less than $40). This coincidence counter is based upon a Cypress PSoC 5 prototyping kit (CY8CKIT-059) and can have up to 10-24 bit counters, more than four input channels, have built in Digital to Analog for use in interferometry. The tests will include Bell’s inequality, Grainger’s experiment and single photon interference.
      • Student Research Projects with Arduino and the Xilinx Zedboard FPGA

      • PST1C12
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Michele McColgan
      • Type: Poster
      • Examples of student research projects using the Arduino and Xilinx's Zedboard FPGA will be presented. Projects include a processing system to detect the difference between neutrons and gamma rays, a beacon system to transmit unique signals, a weather station to collect and display weather data in real time, and PID controller projects for different applications.
      • Advanced Undergraduate Biophysics Lab on Fluid-Fluid Phase Separation

      • PST1C14
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Ryan McGorty
      • Type: Poster
      • Compartmentalizing biomolecules is a necessary task for life to exist. Often cells use lipid membranes for such tasks. Cells are encapsulated within a membrane and within the cell exists the nuclear envelope, vesicles, and other lipid-membrane bound organelles. Intriguingly, a new way for cells to partition molecules has recently emerged. A few years ago, liquid-like bodies were observed within cells. These liquid-drops are the result of fluid-fluid phase separation within the cell. I will describe experiments done in an undergraduate biophysics lab course that explore fluid-fluid phase separation using colloidal and polymer solutions. Students use microscopy techniques including bright-field, differential interference contrast, laser-scanning confocal and light-sheet microscopy. Analysis of acquired images yield capillary times and lengths and students learn how those time and length scales relate to surface tension and other parameters. Students also construct a phase diagram to demark the concentrations of polymers or colloids required for phase separation.
  • Leadership and Other Skills in the Undergraduate Curriculum

      • Leadership Development in a Workshop Environment

      • BG05
      • Mon 07/18, 3:00PM - 3:30PM
      • by Juan Burciaga
      • Type: Poster
      • "Leadership Roles and Models in the Classroom, Academia and Beyond" is a workshop with a focus on the role of leadership in the professional development of STEM faculty, K-12 teachers, and science professionals. But what is the role of leadership in our careers? On what skills do we focus? What is the structure of the workshop? Are there any ways to structure leadership opportunities for our students? The poster will present a summary of the workshop and describe its goals, format, and content.
  • Lecture/Classroom

      • Geometric Constructions as Mnemonics in Classical Physics

      • PST2C01
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Satinder Sidhu
      • Type: Poster
      • Although some of the most original minds in physics are reputed to have been geometrical thinkers, the results obtained by them are today most compactly and elegantly expressed in the language of algebra and analysis. Yet, these same results can often be encapsulated in easily remembered geometric constructions. Students find these re-expressions particularly helpful, not only in memorizing but also in understanding quantitative interrelationships. Examples from familiar results in oscillations, waves, electromagnetic fields, and special relativity will be used to illustrate the methods.
      • STEM Connections: A Cohort Model for First Year Students*

      • PST2C03
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Joseph Kozminski, Jason Keleher

      • Type: Poster
      • The Lewis University STEM Connections Program is a cohort program for first-year students planning to major in a program offered by the departments of Physics and Chemistry. First year students take a common curriculum of Chemistry, Physics, and Calculus designed to bring out the interconnectedness of these disciplines. The laboratories are inquiry-based with an emphasis on developing students’ experimental skills. Students also have the opportunity to explore real-world research problems in their first year. An overview of the program’s goals and of the first year STEM Connections experience will be discussed.
      • Study Habits, Observed Habits, and Performance in a Physics MOOC

      • PST2C05
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by David Pritchard, Sait Golkap, Han Wan, ZhongZhou Chen

      • Type: Poster
      • Standard surveys of student’s study habits generally correlate with overall GPA at the 0.20 – 0.45 level. 246 questions from several such surveys were condensed to 17 online questions in four categories: motivation, concentration, time management, and study methods. 122 students (18 female, 113 male, mean age 33) who received certificates answered these 17 questions in our Advanced Introductory Classical Mechanics MOOC. The four categories typically correlated significantly with each other, and with other course/student related variables (most from the exit survey) typically at around 0.2 – 0.3. Moreover time management correlated with several measures of effort in the course. Most noteworthy is that we see no statistically significant correlation between MOOC performance and any of the four categories, although performance correlated with some individual questions. However, students who finished 60% of their first homework a day prior to the deadline did 41% percent better in the course than those who didn’t.
      • The Impact of Language on Learning Physics

      • PST2C07
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Matt Olmstead
      • Type: Poster
      • One difficulty in learning physics is that many physics terms have precise meaning but are used casually in conversation like acceleration, velocity, and speed. Other subjects, including chemistry and biology, have new language that students actively spend time learning on their own, sometimes using notecards or other techniques. The important point is that they make it a point to learn the terminology so that they understand the material. I get the impression that they feel they know the physics vocabulary well enough and do not make the effort learning the terminology they do in other classes. One of the things I would like to determine is if there is a noticeable difference in other languages that do not casually interchange some of the physics terminology. I would also like to look at the amount of time students spend learning the vocabulary in physics compared to other courses.
      • Using Blocks and Money to Understand Temperature

      • PST2C09
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Gerardo Giordano
      • Type: Poster
      • I describe the implementation of a class activity and discussion that usesblocks and money to explain temperature in a one-semester, introductory, conceptual physics class. The activity and subsequent conversation attempt to explain temperature as a measure of the average translational kinetic energy per particle, its role in heat flow direction, its lack of dependence on the quantity of a substance, how a thermometer measures it, and why it has a lower limit but no upper limit. I expect that the addition of the group activity to the clicker-question lecture discussion will give students a better feel for temperature’s part in thermodynamics. I investigate the effects of the activity on the students’ comprehension by means of a survey and related course exam results across several semesters.
      • What Can It Look Like?: Physics Teaching for Social Justice

      • PST2C11
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Moses Rifkin
      • Type: Poster
      • Only 4% of professional physicists identify as black or African American, a number far smaller than the 12% of the Americans that do, and this underrepresentation is more dramatic in physics than it is in most scientific disciplines. I have developed a curriculum that uses these and other statistics as a jumping-off point for my high school students to explore issues of race, access, and culture in physics. I will share my experiences from a decade of using the curriculum, including how my students respond, how I address the challenges that have arisen, and how this curriculum has evolved. In doing so, I hope both to model the integration of physics teaching and social justice and to motivate attendees to take steps in their own classes.
      • A New IPLS Course at UNC – Mechanics, Energy, Thermodynamics

      • PST2C13
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Duane Deardorff, Alice Churukian, David Smith, Colin Wallace, Laurie McNeil

      • Type: Poster
      • This is the first of two posters describing the complete transformation ofour large-enrollment introductory physics course for life science (IPLS) majors. All sections of the course are now offered in the new format, utilizing the lecture-studio model with content focused on aligning introductory physics concepts with authentic biological applications. In this poster, we will provide an overview of what the first-semester course now looks like and our assessment of its implementation. Specifically we will highlight materials that we have developed in many topics that are important for life science majors, but are not part of the traditional introductory physics curriculum, including scaling, stress and strain, diffusion, and chemical energy.
      • Comparison between Two Active Methodologies: Hands-on Experiments and Interactive Simulations

      • PST2C15
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Diana Berenice Lopez Tavares, Daniel Sánchez Guzman, Ricardo Garcia Salcedo

      • Type: Poster
      • The use of active learning methodologies in science has demonstrated its effectiveness. But, is there any advantage if we use hands-on experiments or interactive simulations? How much of any physical concept is learned if they do an experiment or if they use an interactive simulation? Present work tries to take us closer to the answers of these questions. We designed two learning sequences combining hands-on experiments and interactive-simulation activities. These sequences were applied in two groups of high school students, one group used hands-on experiments and another group used interactive simulations. The Electric Circuits Concept Evaluation (ECCE) was applied as pre-test and post-test for analyzing the concepts learned using normalized gain and concentration factor tools. Preliminary results shown that the concepts were acquired similarly by students, even we applied a retention test three weeks after instruction and the simulations group obtained a bigger gain than hands-on experiments group.
      • Power Boxes: A New Tool for Understanding Circuits

      • PST2C02
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Daryl McPadden, Jason Dowd, Eric Brewe

      • Type: Poster
      • In order to clarify and provide a conceptual understanding of energy use in circuits, we introduce a new representation for analyzing DC circuits – Power Boxes. Although DC circuits are not generally considered to be the most insidious topics in introductory physics courses, understanding the role of energy in such circuits can be deceptively challenging. Oftentimes, students see circuits as an infinite source of energy and many mechanical energy analogies only further this idea. Instead, Power Boxes allow us to discuss and illustrate the role of electric potential energy in circuits at a given time, while simultaneously building upon (rather than competing with or writing over) representations of energy established in mechanics. Power Boxes can provide an intermediate, conceptual step between drawing a circuit diagram and writing equations.
      • Stochastic Simulations and Finite Difference Models for the Life Sciences

      • PST2C04
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Peter Nelson
      • Type: Poster
      • Life-science students are introduced to modeling and simulation using a simple kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation of diffusion. The model is first introduced as a physical “marble game” and then implemented as a kMC simulation. Students work through a self-study guide introduction to Excel and write their own simulation from scratch in a blank spreadsheet. In a guided-inquiry exercise students discover that Fick’s law of diffusion is a consequence of Brownian motion. Subsequent activities introduce students to: algorithms and computational thinking; exponential decay in drug elimination and radioactive decay; half-life and semi-log plots; finite difference methods (and calculus); the principles of scientific modeling; model validation and residual analysis; and osmosis. Analysis of published clinical data and Nobel Prize winning osmosis research is featured in an active learning environment. Because the materials are self-contained, they can be used in a flipped-classroom approach. Sample chapters are available for free at http://circle4.com/biophysics/chapters/
      • TAPIR (Teaching Activities for Physics Inclusion Resources): Enhancing Diversity in Introductory Physics

      • PST2C06
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Nathan Agarwal, Emiliano Morales, Brooks Thomas, Barbara Whitten

      • Type: Poster
      • Even among STEM disciplines, physics stands out as unusually white- and male-dominated. AIP reports that only 14% of physics faculty are women, and 6% are underrepresented minorities. Rachel Ivie of AIP has studied the pipeline for women in physics, and has identified the transition from high school to college as the most important “leak point” for women. We are approaching this problem by addressing inclusiveness in the calculus-based introductory physics course, the gateway to the undergraduate physics major. While most physics books have a plethora of problems at the end of each chapter, they are focused on contexts like sports and the military, which are not of particular interest to women or students of color, and send the message that physics is not for them. Many young faculty who are interested in diversity would like to present a broader variety of contexts. But, pressed for time, they too often fall back on already prepared topics. We are preparing a database of materials that illustrate the important concepts of introductory physics, but in different contexts that we intend will interest a broader range of students. These might include problems, in-class activities, test problems, paper and discussion topics. We intend these materials for use in the calculus-based physics class, but they will be adaptable to algebra-based and high school classes as well. By making these available to faculty at Colorado College and elsewhere, we hope to encourage women and students of color to major in physics, and eventually increase the diversity of the physics community.
      • Two Stage Exams: Designing Effective Questions

      • PST2C08
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Kristi Concannon
      • Type: Poster
      • The process of peer instruction is crucial in helping students to identifyand confront their misconceptions and to critically apply the fundamental principles learned in lecture to different and more complex situations. In most cases, though, peer learning ends at exam time. I have recently begun implementing two-stage exams in my courses under the premise that learning can and should take place throughout the entire semester, not just in compartmentalized chunks; hence, exams can both be an opportunity for students to demonstrate what they have learned and an opportunity for students to continue to increase their understanding of the course material. In this poster, I will outline what I have learned about writing effective collaborative exam questions.
      • A New IPLS Course at UNC – Fluids, E&M, Optics, Nuclear*

      • PST2C12
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Alice Churukian, Duane Deardorff, David Smith, Colin Wallace, Laurie McNeil

      • Type: Poster
      • This is the second of two posters describing the complete transformation of our large-enrollment introductory physics course for life science (IPLS) majors. All sections of the course are now offered in the new format, utilizing the lecture-studio model with content focused on aligning introductory physics concepts with authentic biological applications. In this poster, we will provide an overview of what the second-semester course now looks like and our assessment of its implementation. Specifically we will highlight materials that we have developed in many topics that are important for life science majors, but are not part of the traditional introductory physics curriculum, including life at low Reynolds number, absorption and fluorescence, and DNA diffraction. *This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DUE-1323008 and AAU Undergraduate STEM Education Initiative.
      • Active Learning and Learning Assistant Support Predictors of Student Success

      • PST2C14
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Leanne Doughty, Paul Le, Amreen Nasim, Laurel Hartley, Robert Talbot

      • Type: Poster
      • We are currently engaged in a project designed to investigate how active learning methods and undergraduate Learning Assistant (LA) support contribute to the learning gains, achievement, retention, and persistence of students enrolled in introductory and upper-division biology, chemistry, and physics courses. As part of this work, we aim to build quantitative models that will help to parse the relative contribution of different activities and other predictors on student outcomes. Independent predictor variables will exist at both the class level (e.g. nature and amount of active learning employed in the class, nature of LA support, and size of class) and student level (e.g. gender, ethnicity, major, and perceived value of active learning). We will present some preliminary models based on initial data collection and the results will be interpreted and backed with qualitative descriptions of the different observed active learning methods.
  • Other Posters

      • Development of an English-Vietnamese Bilingual Online Course on Geometrical Optics

      • PST1E01
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Hai Nguyen, Le-Hang Nguyen

      • Type: Poster
      • As Vietnam is accelerating its integration to the world in all aspects, there comes an urgent need that our young generation must be able to communicate in English not only in everyday conversation but also in sciences. However, the resources for learning science (including physics) in English are very rare in Vietnam. Hence, we decided to build an online course where students could learn physics in both English and Vietnamese. Our course followed the CLIL (Content Language Integrated Learning) approach which was developed in Europe in 1990s and has been applied to several disciplines in many countries. Our course is free and open for everyone at http://lophoc.thuvienvatly.com/course/view.php?id=92. In this presentation, we introduce the pedagogy and components of our online course as an example for teachers who desire to develop similar courses in other languages.
      • Inclusive STEM: A Discussion Group About Equity in STEM Fields

      • PST1E03
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Monica Cook
      • Type: Poster
      • Inclusive STEM is a student organization at Georgia State University whosemission is to provide support to underrepresented minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields by giving a framework for discussion about equity issues in those fields. The group aims to educate STEM students and professionals about diversity, equity, and inclusion as these issues relate to being a culturally competent future scientist, technology professional, engineer, or mathematician.
      • Integration of Computation into Undergraduate Physics Courses: Opportunities for Physics Faculty

      • PST1E05
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Kelly Roos, Marcos Caballero, Norman Chonacky, Larry Engelhardt, Marie Lopez del Puerto

      • Type: Poster
      • While computation has entered the undergraduate physics curriculum in the form of isolated courses on computational and numerical methods, and in a few institutions as a comprehensive program of study, computational instruction in an integrated mode is ostensibly scarce. The Partnership for Integration of Computation into Undergraduate Physics (PICUP) is a national-scale physics community dedicated to aiding and supporting physics faculty in integrating computation into their physics courses, and is also committed to positively impacting the undergraduate physics curriculum by fostering the ubiquitous use of computation as an important third way of doing physics, in addition to analytical theory and experimentation. This poster describes the PICUP community-based framework for integrating computation into the undergraduate physics curriculum, and also advertises an exciting opportunity for faculty who would like to try integrating computation into their physics courses.
      • Issues of a Community College in NY State: 64-Credit Cap, Transfer Paths, and Request to Wave Modern Physics

      • PST1E07
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Glenda Denicolo
      • Type: Poster
      • Suffolk County Community College (SCCC) is part of the State University ofNew York (SUNY) system. In September 2013, SUNY adopted the Seamless Transfer Requirements, in which two-year college programs had to reduce the total number of credits to 64 by May 2014, and at the same time in doing so, abide to the list of core courses in the Transfer Path designed for each discipline. During this period, SUNY was urged to revisit the list of “paths”, and to have a more inclusive dialog with faculty representation from 2 and 4-year institutions. I participated in statewide conversations for Physics, for about six months, through discussion posts. A written summary of Transfer Path recommendations (list of core courses per program) was submitted by each advisory board in the discussion groups, and became effective as of 2015. In this process, our Associate Degree in Liberal Arts and Sciences: Physics Option at SCCC was reduced from a maximum of 72 credits to 64, and several local education requirements, and some General Education requirement courses had to be removed from the program in order to meet the Transfer Path for Physics. I will present our current two-year program, and our ongoing request to SUNY to waive Modern Physics from our program due to low-enrollment (Modern Physics is only required to physics majors), lack of equipment and physical space for this course in particular. Our calculus-based physics courses at SCCC are mostly service courses (mostly majors in engineering), with < 5 physics majors per year, and most of our students transfer to local 4-year institutions after their third semester taking physics at SCCC.
      • Resonance in Long LC-Ladder Circuits

      • PST1E09
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Elizabeth Seber, Melanie Geiger, Mikhail Kagan

      • Type: Poster
      • We investigated long but finite "ladder" circuits composed of alternating identical inductors and capacitors connected in series and parallel and derived an expression for the equivalent impedance of such circuits. The impedance formula’s remarkable simplicity allowed for the direct procurement of all resonance and anti-resonance frequencies. We tested our analytical results by constructing circuits ranging from one to one hundred elements using the standard circuit simulation software (Multisim©), resulting in an equivalent impedance and voltage reading that agreed with our theoretical calculations. Additionally, we resolved the paradoxical phenomenon that for driving frequencies below some critical value, the impedance of a infinite purely reactive infinite circuit acquired a non-zero active part. Our formula revealed no paradox, and we investigated the behavior of the equivalent impedance as the circuit size increased. We did so for various representative values of driving frequency and again found our theoretical predictions in agreement with the modeled circuits.
      • The “Embedded Expert” Model of Educational Transformation: The SEI and TRESTLE*

      • PST1E11
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Stephanie Chasteen
      • Type: Poster
      • In order to achieve broader educational change in STEM discipline, research suggests that we need to engage faculty within a discipline, with opportunities to reflect on their teaching over long periods of time. One strategy that achieves this is the “embedded expert” model, where educational experts are partnered with faculty within a department to support course transformation. This model has been successfully used in the Science Education Initiative (http://colorado.edu/sei) at two institutions, using postdoctoral fellows as embedded experts. This model is being adapted and studied at seven institutions, using various embedded experts, in a new NSF-funded project (TRESTLE; http://www.colorado.edu/csl/trestle) in order to test how this intervention can be implemented in different institutional contexts to propagate widespread STEM education reform. This poster will show how the embedded expert model works, and outline the plans for the TRESTLE grant as the next-step to build on the work of the SEI.
      • A Continuing List of Climate Myths VI

      • PST1E13
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Gordon Aubrecht
      • Type: Poster
      • This continues my series of posters on climate myths. A related talk is being presented.
      • Improving Representation in Physical Sciences Using a Departmental Action Team

      • PST1E02
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Katherine Rainey, Ethan Neil, Meredith Betterton, Daniel Reinholz, Joel Corbo

      • Type: Poster
      • Women and minority students are largely underrepresented in the physical sciences. Here we describe a faculty-, student-, and staff-led group, called a Departmental Action Team (DAT), created to study the recruitment and retention of women and underrepresented minority (URM) students in one physical sciences department. As a result of the DAT’s work, the department has created a new committee on Representation, Recruitment, and Retention (R-cubed) to improve outreach and support for underrepresented students. We describe how the grassroots efforts of the DAT created a departmental context that was able to leverage campus-level diversity efforts to support meaningful, department-wide discussions and an action plan for improving diversity and equity in the major. As such, we present a case study and model for departmental change in other physical science departments.
      • Infinite Circuits Are Easy. How About Long Ones?

      • PST1E04
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Mikhail Kagan, Xinzhe Wang

      • Type: Poster
      • A ladder circuit is composed of resistors with alternating connections in series and parallel. An infinite ladder circuit made of identical resistors is known to have a “golden ratio” equivalent resistance. Things get much more interesting when the circuit is not infinite and when resistors are not all identical. We show how to derive a general explicit expression for the equivalent resistance as a function of the number of repeating blocks, R(n). This expression provides an insight on some adjacent topics, such as Fibonacci numbers, continued fractions and a druncard's random walk in a street with a gutter. We also remark on a possible method of solving the non-linear recurrent relation between R(n) and R(n+1). This result can be easily incorporated in a hands-on lab activity.
      • Investigating Student Reasoning of Everyday Interdisciplinary Phenomena -- Initial Phases

      • PST1E06
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by K. K. Mashood*, Vashti Sawtelle, Charles Anderson, Emily Scott, Sonia Underwood

      • Type: Poster
      • Nurturing interdisciplinary thinking is one of the major goals of a coherent undergraduate education. In this poster we describe the initial stages of a project investigating how students reason about some everyday interdisciplinary phenomena. Specifically, we are studying student explanations to questions such as “What happens to an egg when it boils?” or “How does a person sneezing make another person sick?” Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a group of biology majors enrolled in an introductory physics class (N=12). We are analyzing these interviews to uncover the extent to which students invoke various disciplinary tools, make connections within and across disciplines, and the nature of reasoning in their explanations. We also aim to identify major patterns in student reasoning, along with the challenges and affordances inherent in them. Our long-term goal includes development of a tool to assess interdisciplinary reasoning.
      • Magnets and Dominoes: A Simple Mechanics Analogy for Chemical Bonding

      • PST1E08
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Dan MacIsaac, John Zamojski

      • Type: Poster
      • We present a common interdisciplinary misconception underlying chemical bonding energetics and review the associated literature. We present and describe a self-invented simple series of mechanical work activities making use of common ceramic CB60 magnets and everyday dominoes that we believe provides an insightful kinesthetic analogy leading to appropriately sophisticated insights into chemical bonding for introductory college students who have taken work and energy in introductory physics. Suggestions for how to use the activity in the class are included.
      • Sense of Belonging in STEM: Intersections of Race and Gender

      • PST1E10
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Katherine Rainey, Melissa Dancy, Elizabeth Stearns, Roslyn Mickelson, Stephanie Moller

      • Type: Poster
      • Sense of academic and social belonging have been shown to affect retentionand performance of students in STEM. Though many studies have looked at differences among gender or race in this respect, few studies discuss the intersections of the two. To investigate factors contributing to students’ choices to major in STEM, interviews were conducted with over 300 college seniors who majored in STEM, left a STEM major, or avoided majoring in STEM. Interviews were analyzed and coded based on social connection and study habits. In this presentation, we discuss factors regarding women’s sense of belonging in STEM, specifically focusing on racial aspects.
      • The Oklahoma PhysTEC Collaborative*

      • PST1E12
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Steven Maier, Jenny Sattler

      • Type: Poster
      • The OK PhysTEC Collaborative consists of the four PhysTEC member institutions of Oklahoma. The goal of the project is to increase the number of physics education candidates statewide over a three-year span. To do this, high school and undergraduate students are being recruited into physics and science education programs. In addition, support for travel to physics education conferences is offered to high school teachers, undergraduate physics students, and in-service physics teachers. Participating institutions include Northwestern Oklahoma State University (lead institution), East Central University, Oklahoma State University, and Southwestern Oklahoma State University. In this poster, recruitment efforts to date will be reported, along with summaries of enrollments, program changes motivated by the project, and challenges that remain.
      • Building STEM Student Pathways: A Two- and Four-year Partnership*

      • PST1E14
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Charles DeLeone, Debbie DeRoma, Edward Price, Daniel Sourbeer, Chandra Turpen

      • Type: Poster
      • Many geographically close two- and four-year institutions share a large percentage of their students, and STEM-specific linkages between the institutions can benefit students. So, how can local two- and four-year institutions forge strong, lasting relationships between their STEM programs? An associated talk will describe evidence of student success, which we hope will inspire others to pursue such partnerships. This poster describes the process by which we built such a partnership between two regional institutions, -- California State University, San Marcos, and Palomar College. Key steps included: building personal relationships among faculty and administrators across campuses, creating coherent academic support services, and establishing formal pathways for students. In describing this process, we identify critical elements such as mutual respect, shared goals, aligned institutional missions, and the catalyst of external funding. We hope our account of building such a partnership provides guidance to others who take up this important charge. *Supported in part by NSF-DUE #1068477.
  • Physics Education Research

      • Development of a Survey to Assess Transformative Experience in an Introductory Calculus-based Mechanics Course

      • PST2B01
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Steven Wolf, David Donnelly

      • Type: Poster
      • At Texas State University and East Carolina University, we have been implementing many research-based curricula in our introductory physics classes, and have developed a survey to assess the degree of Transformative Experience in our students. The survey was modeled after one used by Pugh, and is similar to those developed by Frank and Atkins. Our pilot survey was administered to a total of 209 students during the 2014-15 academic year and has been revised and readministered during the 2015-16 academic year. We will present data related to the reliability of this instrument and plans for coordinating this assessment with other assessments common in PER such as the FCI.
      • Educational Data Mining for Discovering Learning Patterns in High School Physics Students

      • PST2B03
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Daniel Sanchez, DARLY YURANI CHARRY SÁNCHEZ

      • Type: Poster
      • Educational Data Mining has been used since 2006 in many educational contexts, but in physics education it has not been well explored, present work tries to show the use of EDM in Physics Education Research (PER) experiments and the potential of its use for analyzing relevant data that can be useful for teachers, students, parents and policy makers. We present the clustering and classification algorithms applied in two PER experiments applied with high-school students of physics.
      • Evaluating Just-in-Time Teaching and Peer Instruction Using Clickers in a Quantum Mechanics Course

      • PST2B05
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Ryan Sayer, Emily Marshman, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) is an instructional strategy involving feedback from students on pre-lecture activities in order to design in-class activities to build on the continuing feedback from students. We investigate the effectiveness of a JiTT approach, which included in-class concept tests using clickers in an upper-division quantum mechanics course. We analyze student performance on pre-lecture reading quizzes, in-class clicker questions answered individually, and clicker questions answered after group discussion, and compare those performances with open-ended retention quizzes administered after all instructional activities on the same concepts. In general, compared to the reading quizzes, student performance improved in individual concept tests administered using clickers after lecture focusing on student difficulties found via electronic feedback. The performance on the group concept tests administered after the individual concept tests and on retention quizzes also showed improvement. We discuss possible reasons for the improvement in performance from pre-lecture quizzes to post-lecture concept tests and from individual to group concept tests and retention quizzes.
      • Examining Engineering Course Work Looking for Breadcrumbs

      • PST2B07
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Thomas Foster, John Peters

      • Type: Poster
      • In our introductory physics courses we teach, more often than not, to students who will go into engineering. However, our engineering colleagues tend to teach mechanics in their Statics and Dynamics courses. Have you ever wondered if what you taught shows up in that statics class when the students revisit essentially the same material? With the help of an engineering undergraduate research student, we were able to interpret trends in the students work which group with previous courses. Our preliminary results will help you sleep at night knowing that what you teach students does show up in when asked similar questions.
      • Examining the Pedagogical Fidelity of an Adopted Curriculum

      • PST2B09
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Kevin Hartman, Casaandra Paul

      • Type: Poster
      • Instructor-researchers at San José State University (SJSU) have implemented the Collaborative Learning through Active Sense-making in Physics (CLASP) curriculum in our algebra-based, introductory physics course. Originally developed at UC Davis, CLASP is characterized by the use of models and integrated discussion-labs where hands-on, small-group activities promote sense-making and problem-solving skills. Previous research has shown that while instructors employ various interaction techniques, CLASP is, considerably more interactive than traditional lab or lecture environments. Using the Real-time Instructor Observing Tool (RIOT), we examine the similarities and differences between CLASP implementation at the two institutions and explore the degree to which CLASP curriculum is successful with each population. These results have implications for those who plan to adapt curriculum for a different environment and population.
      • Exploring One Aspect of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Physics Instructors and Teaching Assistants* Using the Force Concept Inventory

      • PST2B11
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Alexandru Maries, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices that correspond to students’ alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students’ initial knowledge state in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of both instructors and teaching assistants (TAs): knowledge of introductory student difficulties related to mechanics as they are revealed by the FCI. We used the FCI to design a task for instructors and TAs that would provide information about their knowledge of common student difficulties and used FCI pre-test and post-test data from a large population (~900) of introductory physics students to assess this aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of physics instructors and TAs. We find that while both physics instructors and TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students’ difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have, even after traditional instruction. Moreover, the ability to correctly identify students’ difficulties was not correlated with the teaching experience of the physics instructors or the background of the TAs.
      • Extending Psychometric Analysis of Gender Differences on the FCI

      • PST2B15
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Alexis Papak, Adrienne Traxler, Rebecca Lindell

      • Type: Poster
      • Despite decades of research using the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), its psychometric properties have been only lightly documented. Psychometric theory tells us that it is essential for inventory developers to establish the fairness of an instrument for any population for which it is intended. Many physics courses are strongly gender-imbalanced, which can obscure gender effects when field-testing items for appropriateness. In a preliminary analysis that disaggregated by gender, we found that up to 15 items might be discarded from the FCI for falling outside acceptable ranges of item difficulty or discrimination. This result is almost entirely buried when the tests are only run on the overall (male-dominated) sample. Here we extend the analysis to a larger data set and progress to additional psychometric tests, attending to other buried gender effects that may appear.
      • Gender, Network Analysis, and Conceptual Gains in Introductory Physics

      • PST2B17
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Sarah Hierath, Emily Sandt, Adrienne Traxler

      • Type: Poster
      • Social Network Analysis (SNA) is an important tool in studying classroom dynamics because it can be used to map the social structure of a classroom’s interactions and to aid in understanding how students work and study together. This study presents network diagrams, statistics, and centrality measures for several sections of introductory physics. Sections vary in size and structure, from traditional lecture to very interactive. Networks were analyzed in aggregate and by gender to look for gender effects in network participation. Centrality measures were calculated from survey data in which students listed the names of their study partners within the class. These centrality measures will be correlated with success on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), which was administered to students at the beginning and end of the semester. We will look for connections between network position and conceptual gains, both overall and by gender.
      • How Students Combine Knowledge Elements While Learning

      • PST2B19
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by AJ Richards, Darrick Jones, Eugenia Etkina

      • Type: Poster
      • We recorded pre-service physics teachers learning about the physics of solar cells. Using a knowledge-in-pieces theoretical framework, we analyze their interactions in order to make inferences about the elements of prior knowledge they call upon as they build understanding of how these devices function. Of special interest are the instances when a student makes a significant conceptual breakthrough. We find that students who combine different aspects of their prior knowledge in specific ways may be more likely to make breakthroughs. We will discuss what instructors can do to prime learners to combine knowledge in productive ways so they are better able to achieve these breakthroughs.
      • In-class Surveys: Time Well Spent or Simply Inefficient?

      • PST2B23
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Ben Van Dusen, Eleanor Close

      • Type: Poster
      • This study investigates differences in student responses to in-class and online administrations of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), and the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS). Over 700 physics students from six classes were instructed to complete the concept inventory relevant to their course, either the FCI or CSEM, and the CLASS. Each student was randomly assigned to take one of the surveys in class and the other survey online using the LA Supported Student Outcomes system. Our analysis examines item level and overall performance differences on the surveys across administration settings. Student demographic information will also be used to identify potential variations across gender, ethnicity, and racial variables.
      • Insights into Undergraduate Thesis Writers: Motivation, Beliefs, and Self-efficacy

      • PST2B25
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Jason Dowd, Robert Thompson, Jr., Julie Reynolds

      • Type: Poster
      • Synthesizing data that have been collected across science departments fromseveral institutions over three years, we share findings regarding (1) the relationships among students' motivation, self-efficacy in science and writing, and epistemic beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge, (2) changes to those relationships throughout one semester of a writing-intensive capstone thesis course, and (3) relationships between such characteristics and other learning outcomes. Specifically, we carry out cluster analyses to gain insights about undergraduate thesis writers. Previous work indicates that scaffolding the writing process in a thesis-writing course can be an effective strategy for promoting these characteristics and related learning outcomes. Building on that work here, we endeavor to better understand the influence of writing on individual students' learning. Our ability to assess scientific reasoning and writing in students' undergraduate theses is a critical aspect of this work. Ultimately, our analysis will be used to motivate institution- and department-specific changes.
      • Introductory Astronomy: Epistemological Beliefs and Scientific Reasoning

      • PST2B27
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Shannon Willoughby, Keith Johnson

      • Type: Poster
      • Over the course of four semesters we administered the 5-axis Epistemological Beliefs about the Physical Sciences (EBAPS) survey as a pre-test and a post-test in our introductory Astronomy course. This baseline data revealed significant declines along several axes regarding student epistemological beliefs. Course modifications have since halted these significant declines with an exception to axis 5: Students’ views about whether learning science is persistent or malleable. During the 2015-2016 academic year we implemented an online homework system in order to give students further opportunities to explicitly address axis 5 by encouraging them to practice their understanding via the online homework system. Measurements of student formal reasoning were also conducted to provide additional insight into these belief structures. Statistical comparisons between the latest pre-test and post-test EBAPS data are presented, as well as correlations between student formal reasoning abilities and epistemological beliefs.
      • Investigating Grading Beliefs and Practices of Graduate Student Teaching Assistants Using a Rubric

      • PST2B29
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Ryan Sayer, Emily Marshman, Charles Henderson, Chandralekha Singh, Edit Yerushalmi

      • Type: Poster
      • Teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading student solutions. Since grading communicates instructors’ expectations, TAs’ grading practices play a crucial role in shaping students’ approaches to problem solving. However, TAs may be inconsistent in their grading practices and may benefit from using a rubric when grading. We implemented a sequence of instructional activities in a TA training course which involved grading student solutions of introductory physics problems. We investigated the TAs’ grading criteria and practices at the outset of a professional development program and after completing instructional activities involving grading with a rubric. We will discuss the findings.
      • Investigating Student Use of Angular Momentum Operators in Quantum Mechanics

      • PST2B31
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Chrystin Green, Gina Passante

      • Type: Poster
      • This study focuses on student difficulties in the use of quantum mechanical operators, specifically operators relating to angular momentum, in a senior-level quantum mechanics course. Interview data is collected and analyzed to better understand the errors that we find many students make when using operators to solve problems that involve commutation relations, expectation values, and the uncertainty in angular momentum. The results of this investigation will allow us to more clearly articulate the difficulties students have with the mathematical formalism in quantum mechanics and will inform the creation of curricula to address these difficulties and facilitate the development of robust conceptual understanding.
      • Investigating the Impact of Task Design on Student Reasoning*

      • PST2B33
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Cody Gette, Mila Kryjevskaia, MacKenzie Stetzer, Andrew Boudreaux, Sara Julin

      • Type: Poster
      • As part of ongoing investigation of student reasoning in physics, we have been exploring a particularly puzzling phenomenon: students often demonstrate competent reasoning on one task, but not on other, closely related tasks. Some students seem to abandon the formal knowledge and skills in favor of more appealing intuitive ideas. In order to probe the nature of such inconsistencies in student performance, we developed a sreening-target question methodology that allows us to disentangle various factors that may influence student reasoning approaches. In this presentation we will focus on factors that are perhaps rooted in the task design. In particular, we modified screening questions and examined the impact of this modification on student performance on a target question. Screening questions differed in metacognitive prompts, perceived cognitive ease, and the level of abstractness.
      • Key Factors in Introductory Physics Performance: A Four-year Study

      • PST2B35
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Brian Thoms, Saif Ali, Donna Babihuga, Alexander Coston

      • Type: Poster
      • The effects on introductory physics students’ conceptual learning of student demographics and educational history as well as characteristics of instructors and course design have been investigated. The data used in this study was collected over four years from students in introductory algebra- and calculus-based physics courses and includes scores from diagnostics of conceptual understanding (FCI and CSEM), student demographics (major, age, gender, race/ethnicity, native language), student educational history (previous physics and math experience), and students’ answers to a lab survey as well as course instructor information. During this four-year period algebra-based physics was taught in both traditional lecture format and in SCALE-UP format. Also during this period the calculus-based physics underwent a major laboratory reform. We will present results showing key factors affecting student success as measured by conceptual inventories.
      • Learning Orientations Towards Physics Problem Solving: Additional Potential Variables

      • PST2B37
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Andrew Mason, Charles Bertram

      • Type: Poster
      • Introductory algebra-based physics students who are predominately biology majors and health science majors may have different pedagogical goals with regard to their respective majors. This in turn may affect their approach to physics problem solving skills and, more generally, overall course performance. Previous research[1] identified learning orientations (framework-oriented, performance-oriented, vague-oriented) and examined preliminary evidence of how these orientations might influence student attitudes towards physics problem solving, and in turn influence learning of elements of physics problem solving and overall course performance. A follow-up investigation, with an increased sample size of three semesters (including eight laboratory sections) of introductory algebra-based physics students, identifies potential variables which may influence these learning orientations.
      • New Resources on PhysPort: Supporting Physics Teaching with Research-based Resources

      • PST2B39
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Sarah McKagan, Adrian Madsen

      • Type: Poster
      • Physics education researchers have created research results, teaching methods, curricula, and assessments that can dramatically improve physics education. PhysPort (www.physport.org) is the go-to place for ordinary physics faculty to find resources for research-based teaching and assessment. First released in 2011 as the PER User's Guide, PhysPort has undergone re-branding, redesign, and expansion, including many new resources: overviews of over 50 research-based teaching methods and over 50 research-based assessment instruments, Expert Recommendations, the Virtual New Faculty Workshop, the Periscope collection of video-based TA training and faculty professional development materials, and the Assessment Data Explorer, an interactive tool for faculty to get instant analysis and visualization of their students’ responses to research-based assessment instruments including the FCI, BEMA, and CLASS, and compare their results to national averages and students like theirs. The development of PhysPort includes research to determine faculty needs and usability testing to ensure that we meet those needs.
      • Open-ended Design and Peer Review in NEXUS/Physics IPLS

      • PST2B41
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Kimberly Moore
      • Type: Poster
      • UMd-PERG’s NEXUS/Physics for Life Sciences laboratory curriculum, piloted in 2012-2013 in small test classes, has been implemented in large-enrollment environments at UMD 2013-present, and adopted at several institutions beginning in 2014. These labs address physical issues at biological scales using microscopy, image and video analysis, electrophoresis, and spectroscopy in an open, non-protocol-driven environment. In the 2015-2016 iteration, we have added peer review elements to the second semester course. We have collected a wealth of data (surveys, video analysis, etc.) that enables us to get a sense of the students’ responses to this curriculum at UMD. In this poster, we will provide a broad overview of what we have learned and a discussion of the challenges in integrating simultaneous interdisciplinary and pedagogical reforms. Special emphasis will be placed on successes and challenges accompanying this scaling-up, both at UMD and beyond.
      • Preparing Undergraduates for Solving Problems in PhD-level Research

      • PST2B45
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Jarrett Vosburg, Anne Leak, Javier Olivera, Kelly Martin, Ben Zwickl

      • Type: Poster
      • While ‘problem solving’ is a task that is heavily emphasized in the undergraduate physics curriculum and often cited as a skill needed in 21st century STEM careers, it is unclear how the problem solving experiences of undergraduates compare to those encountered in scientific research and careers. One way to better understand problem solving in authentic scientific research settings and how it relates to undergraduate preparation, is to explore the perspectives of graduate students. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 graduate students to determine what problems they encountered in their research, what strategies they used to solve these, and how problem solving in their graduate research compared to their undergraduate experiences. We coded these interviews using emergent and grounded theory approaches. Our findings include a taxonomy and context for problems and problem solving strategies, along with implications for problem solving opportunities in the undergraduate curriculum.
      • Promoting Student Engagement in Scientific Practice in an Introductory Laboratory

      • PST2B47
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Abhilash Nair*, Marcos Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • In light of recent calls for aligning introductory physics activities withscientific practice (AAPT 2014) as well as a push for the development of a set of recommended practices for life science majors (AAMC-HHMI, 2009), we report on a transformation of a second semester introductory lab course for non-physics majors (life science majors making up the vast majority). The transformed lab was designed with specific course structures to support students in working collaboratively in a group, developing a systematic approach to experimental design, understanding how to utilize different measurement devices, and understanding the uncertainties involved in measurements. We present analysis of small group work that took place in the pilot semester of this transformation highlighting instances where students engaged in these scientific practices in the presence of these supports. We discuss potential improvements to the course structures to better support students in achieving the learning objectives outlined above.
      • Self-Efficacy in Introductory STEM Majors

      • PST2B49
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Cabot Zabriskie, Rachel Henderson, Lynnette Michaluk, Seth Devore, John Stewart

      • Type: Poster
      • With the growing emphasis on the importance of STEM fields, understanding the factors that are involved in students completing STEM degrees has become a vibrant topic of study. One such factor believed to be linked to collegiate academic success is students’ feeling of self-efficacy. This study adapted the “Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance” subscale of the Motivated Learning Strategies Questionnaire (MLSQ) developed by Pintrich et al. to various college and professional environments: the student’s planned profession, classes in their major, mathematics classes, science classes, and physics classes. Changes in self-efficacy were investigated as students matriculated through the first and second semester introductory, calculus-based physics classes from fall 2015 through spring 2016. We present here our preliminary findings on the effects of this factor as part of a larger study on factors effecting STEM retention.
      • Sensemaking with Layers of Epistemic Games

      • PST2B51
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Michael Vignal, Elizabeth Gire

      • Type: Poster
      • The epistemic games framework has been used productively to understand problem-solving behavior in physics. The epistemic games that have been identified in physics span a wide range of grain sizes. We exploit the concept of grain-size to consider concurrent epistemic games played by advanced undergraduate physics majors attempting to complete a single task. We identify differing layers of epistemic games in interviews with three groups of students, and we explore relationships and interactions between these layers in order to understand how the groups are (or are not) engaged in physics sensemaking.
      • Social Positioning and Consensus Building in “Board” Meetings With Disagreements

      • PST2B53
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Brant Hinrichs, David Brookes

      • Type: Poster
      • This poster describes a whole-class whiteboard meeting and analyzes several examples from a college calculus-based introductory physics course taught using modeling instruction. One section was divided into six groups of 4-5 students each. Each group created a solution to the same problem on a 2’x 3’ whiteboard. The groups then formed a large circle in the center of the classroom with their whiteboards resting against their knees facing in to the rest of the group. The instructor was outside the circle and interjected rarely. Examples are given of conversations where students did and did not overcome sharp disagreements to eventually reach whole-class consensus. We examine how social positioning contributed to students either successfully examining and resolving different ideas or failing to do so. That is, how students who “hedged” their statements seemed to “open up” the space for discussion, while those who were more direct seemed to “close it down.”
      • Differential Impacts of Aligning Epistemological Expectations in Introductory Physics Labs

      • PST2B02
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Kelsey Funkhouser, Vashti Sawtelle, William Martinez, Marcos Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • There has been an abundance of work done to study students’ epistemological beliefs in physics lecture classes but much less has been done in the laboratory classes. The introductory physics laboratory courses at Michigan State University are currently undergoing a transformation. One goal of the transformation is to align the students' epistemological expectations of how to succeed in a lab with what the faculty want students to get out of the lab experience. This work looks at shifts in student attitudes as measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). We will present analysis of how particular goals of the lab transformation align (or not) with shifts in student attitudes with an emphasis on gender differences.
      • Effect of Active Learning on Student Attitudes towards Learning Physics

      • PST2B04
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Liang Zeng, Guang Zeng

      • Type: Poster
      • Most professors at the University of Texas-Rio Grande Valley, an Hispanic Serving Institution, perceive pre-med majors to have relatively weak backgrounds in high school physics and math and have little interest in learning physics profoundly. They also feel many students only want to get high grades to improve their transcripts. Through implementing various active learning methods in my General Physics I class in fall 2015, including aligning curriculum with MCAT standards, employing classroom demonstrations, solving problems within various contexts, realizing just-in-time teaching with clickers, and encouraging small-group discussions, we found dramatically improved student attitudes towards learning physics, as measured by the CLASS survey on 19 students in the beginning and the end of the semester. This pilot study calls for a continuous study on the effect of active learning. It also directs other STEM educators to conduct similar research to improve quality of education in introductory-level classes.
      • Evaluating the Workshop for New Physics and Astronomy Faculty

      • PST2B06
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Stephanie Chasteen
      • Type: Poster
      • Since 1996, the AAPT, APS, and AAS have hosted the Workshop for New Physics and Astronomy Faculty (NFW) to introduce new faculty to research-validated instructional techniques; these workshops have been very influential in encouraging faculty to try teaching methods like Peer Instruction. This poster will focus on the workshop evaluation, including survey design and analysis, characterization of the participants, analysis of learning gains, and the common challenges faced in workshop implementation (such as cognitive overload, providing breadth as well as interactivity, avoiding being seen as "selling" evidence-based practice, and giving faculty participants the tools necessary for success).  The poster should be of interest to evaluators and implementers of various professional development programs.*
      • Examining the Effects of Testwiseness Using the FCI and CSEM

      • PST2B08
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Seth DeVore, John Stewart

      • Type: Poster
      • Testwiseness is generally defined as the set of cognitive strategies used by a student and intended to improve their score on a test regardless of the test’s subject matter. To improve our understanding of the potential effect size of several well-documented elements of testwiseness we analyze student performance on questions present in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Conceptual Survey on Electricity and Magnetism that contain distractors, the selection of which can be related to the use of testwiseness strategies. Additionally we examine the effects of the position of a distractor on its likelihood to be selected in 5-option multiple choice questions. We further examine the potential effects of several elements of testwiseness on student scores by developing two modified versions of the FCI designed to include additional elements related to testwiseness. Details of the effect sizes of these various aspects of testwiseness will be discussed.
      • Explicit Incentives to Correct Mistakes in Quantum Mechanics Can Substantially Improve Performance on the Same Problems Repeated a Second Time

      • PST2B10
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Chandralekha Singh, Ben Brown, Andrew Mason

      • Type: Poster
      • An earlier investigation found that the performance of advanced students in a quantum mechanics course did not automatically improve from midterm to final exam on identical problems even when they were provided the correct solutions and their own graded exams. Here, we describe a study, which extended over four years, in which upper-level undergraduate students in a quantum physics course were given four identical problems in both the midterm exam and final exam. Approximately half of the students were given explicit incentives to correct their mistakes in the midterm exam. In particular, they could get back up to 50% of the points lost on each midterm exam problem. The solutions to the midterm exam problems were provided to all students in both groups but those who corrected their mistakes were provided the solution after they submitted their corrections to the instructor. The performance on the same problems on the final exam suggests that students who were given incentives to correct their mistakes significantly outperformed those who were not given an incentive. The incentive to correct the mistakes had greater impact on the final exam performance of students who had not performed well on the midterm exam. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Exploring One Aspect of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Assistants Using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics*

      • PST2B12
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Alexandru Maries, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) is a multiple choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant (TA) training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. We used the TUG-K to design a task forTAs that would provide information about their knowledge of common student difficulties and used the TA data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high-school students) to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is comparable with that of foreign graduate students.
      • Exploring the Role of Design Problems in the Physics Classroom

      • PST2B14
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Paul Hamerski*, Paul Irving, Marcos Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • A feature missing in many physics courses is design work, which would better prepare science and engineering students for future work where design plays a bigger role. This realization has already led to significant changes in K-12 curricula, and we are exploring the role of design problems at a post-secondary level, where incorporating such problems allows for unique opportunities for students to create and adjust models of physics principles. This investigation takes a close look at how groups of students in a section of introductory physics at Michigan State University approach design problems, and how learning is affected. In order to inform and assist instructors and researchers, we have adapted a framework traditionally used in engineering design to characterize the problem-solving steps we observed. Our investigation highlights the utility of design, and offers up some additional questions and possible explanations on the impact of design problems in the physics classroom.
      • Faculty Expectations of Dimensional Analysis

      • PST2B16
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by MacKenzie Lenz, Elizabeth Gire

      • Type: Poster
      • Although dimensional analysis is often considered a fundamental skill in physics, surprisingly little research has examined how instructors teach it or expect their students to do it. Eight faculty from Oregon State University were interviewed to better understand how they think about and teach dimensional analysis. These faculty teach introductory, upper division and graduate courses, and have diverse research backgrounds. Dimensional analysis was identified as either a tool for deriving formulas or answer checking, some preferred to think of the latter mode as “unit checking.” Students are expected to be able to check units/dimensions at all levels (introductory through graduate) of their physics education. Many faculty commented that, although they may demonstrate dimensional analysis, they do not explicitly discuss strategies for doing it or require students to practice it in course assignments.
      • Helping Students Master Uncertainties in Measurements

      • PST2B18
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Scott Bonham, Brian Luna, Kolton Jones

      • Type: Poster
      • Uncertainties are an important part of scientific measurement, but one with which many students struggle. We present a set of activities that we have implemented in introductory physics laboratory sessions to help students understand the concept, mechanics, and importance of uncertainties. These activities seek to help students visualize the meaning of the standard deviation of the mean/standard error, give them practice calculating the standard error and propagating uncertainties through multiple calculations, and recognize the need for uncertainties in a “real life” application. For this, students measure parameters of a plastic “boat,” “cargo” it is to carry, and its “sea,” to calculate the maximum cargo—with uncertainties—that will not sink. We find that the full set of instructional interventions leads the majority of the students to consistently report the uncertainties of their measured and calculated values in their reports for most of the rest of the semester.
      • Impacts of Lecture-based Teaching and Faculty Disconnection on STEM Majoring

      • PST2B20
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Melissa Dancy, Katherine Rainey, Elizabeth Stearns, Roslyn Arlin Mickelson, Stephanie Moller

      • Type: Poster
      • Over 300 university seniors were interviewed about their experiences pursuing a major. The students were either STEM majors, had left a STEM major or had considered but never pursued a STEM major. The majority of students interviewed were from an underrepresented group, i.e. women and/or racial minority. Students reported a preference for interactive teaching yet experienced high levels of lecturing in college classes. Additionally, they report positive influences of high school teachers but rarely of college faculty in their decisions to pursue or continue a STEM major. Students report particularly negative experiences in physics. Poor college level teaching appears to disproportionately impact underrepresented groups.
      • Improving Student Understanding of Time-Dependence of Expectation Values in Quantum Mechanics via Larmor Precession of Spin

      • PST2B22
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Chandralekha Singh, Ben Brown, Guangtian Zhu

      • Type: Poster
      • We conducted research on student difficulties and developed and evaluated a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on Larmor precession of spin to help students learn about time-dependence of expectation values in quantum mechanics. The QuILT builds on students' prior knowledge and strives to help them develop a good knowledge structure of relevant concepts related to time-dependence of expectation values using a simple two-state system. It adapts visualization tools to help students develop intuition about these topics and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss the development of the QuILT starting with investigation of student difficulties and concluding with the findings from the evaluation of the QuILT. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Infrared Cameras Provide Disciplinary Affordance to Thermal Phenomena

      • PST2B24
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Jesper Haglund
      • Type: Poster
      • Infrared (IR) cameras are a flexible technology for visualization of thermal phenomena. With decreasing prices, handheld IR cameras are becoming a viable option in physics education. In our physics education research, we have developed, implemented, and evaluated a range of practical laboratory exercises with IR cameras for different age groups. For high school teaching, exercises are based on the predict-observe-explain (POE) design, through which students have investigated phenomena such as heat conduction through different materials, and temperature increases due to friction and inelastic collisions. At university thermodynamics courses, students engage in open-ended laboratory investigation of apparatus such as a Leslie’s cube, a heat pump or a fire extinguisher. Students have been found to use the technology in “instant inquiry” of thermal phenomena. We conclude that IR cameras have disciplinary affordance in the area of thermal science.
      • Instrumentation for Video-based Research in Physics Education

      • PST2B26
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Benedikt Harrer
      • Type: Poster
      • Interest in video-based research in physics education is greater than ever. With increasing affordability and ever-advancing specifications, audio and video recording equipment of exceptional quality is now readily available for every budget. However, with the large variety of available recording devices, file formats, computer programs, etc., and also with increasingly complex recording and analysis situations, it can be difficult to find the right equipment and recording strategies. We present some of our insights and findings from designing a video-based physics education research laboratory, the Productive Interactions and Ideas in Physics Laboratory (PI/IP Lab) at San José State University.
      • Introductory Physics Students' Perception of Worked-Out Problem Solutions

      • PST2B28
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Shih-Yin Lin
      • Type: Poster
      • Worked examples are common instructional tools used in the teaching and learning of problem solving. As part of a larger study to explore how worked examples could be designed and used effectively to facilitate student learning, we investigate how students perceive features in worked examples that are designed to model expert-like problem solving strategies. Thirty students enrolled in an introductory physics course were provided with different instructor solutions for the same physics problem and asked to discuss the features they noticed from these solutions. They were also asked to discuss how important each of these features was when solving physics problems as well as whether they would like to see these features included in worked out examples provided to them. We will present the findings.
      • Investigating Students Understanding Early Atom Models via Model-Based Inquiry

      • PST2B32
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Tugba Yuksel
      • Type: Poster
      • This research is part of a larger study that examines students’ cognitive structures and reasoning of fundamental quantum mechanics concepts as they engage in a model-based inquiry instruction. In this research, I will investigate how undergraduate freshmen level students’ cognitive understanding about atomic structure and behavior of electrons evolve when they are encourage pursuing early scientists’ approach. Individuals construct their knowledge and develop models to represent their understanding as they share ideas and communicate with others. A model-based framework for this project is adopted along with history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science education to facilitate students to acquire comprehensive understanding as well as develop interest in science learning. With hands on materials and computer-based simulations, students had a chance to imitate Thomson and Rutherford experiments. By doing that, they were also encouraged to think how technological equipment and philosophical and historical background in early '90s affected scientists’ discoveries.
      • Learning of Heat and Thermic Energy Concepts in Tonala, Mexico

      • PST2B36
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Jose Santana Fajardo, Mario Ramírez

      • Type: Poster
      • The Tonala High School of the University of Guadalajara has a unique program of teaching ceramics in Mexico, which tries to rescue the culture of the region and to develop scientific and technological skills. In this particular case, the learning of concepts of heat and temperature are presented because they are a fundamental part in the consolidation of ceramic products. This paper shows Project-Oriented Learning (POL), implemented in courses within the curriculum of the Bachillerato Tecnológico en Cerámica (BTC). To show its benefit we need to evaluate their incidence to reach the learning of physical concepts by middle education students. We expose the application of a teaching sequence that involves the POL and situations centered in ceramics. We use Hake’s and concentration factor to measure the quality of instruction, applied to the results obtained from a pre-test and post-test designed specifically to this course.
      • Listening to Student Conversations During Group Exams

      • PST2B38
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Joss Ives, Nutifafa Sumah

      • Type: Poster
      • We use video analysis to study the dynamics of group interactions during agroup exam. Of particular interest are the contributions of low-performing and high-performing students in groups of students with various mixes of student performance.
      • Non-traditional Student Status, Conceptual Gains and Centrality in Introductory Physics

      • PST2B40
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Emily Sandt, Sarah Hierath, Adrienne Traxler

      • Type: Poster
      • Undergraduate universities are transitioning to a more hands-on cooperative learning environment where peer interaction plays a large role in students' learning. Does this model work equally for all students? Do non-traditional students show the same increase in gaining conceptual knowledge as traditional students despite their social differences (such as age, full-time employment, family life, etc.)? The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was utilized as a pre- and post-course diagnostic exam to determine conceptual gains and an online social network survey gathered data about student connections. The network was plotted and several centrality measures were calculated. The FCI score gains were correlated to each of the centrality values. Non-traditional and traditional student data subsets were compared to determine if any significant differences between the two groups’ results were present.
      • Pathways to a Physics Degree: A Statistical Story

      • PST2B42
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by John Aiken, Marcos Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • Michigan State University (MSU) has collected a wide body of data on students for over 10 years allowing for a robust, statistical picture to be painted of how students enter and exit the physics world. This data includes course grade, gender, ethnicity, student major choices, etc. and can help us paint a pathway of every student who has received a physics bachelor's degree at MSU. While this data set contains over 100,000 students who have taken math and physics courses at MSU only 2% of these students have declared a physics major and only 0.5% of students have gone on to graduate with a bachelors in physics. Students who declare physics and then move away from the major perform poorly in introductory courses and are demographically different from the typical physics graduate.
      • Physics Teachers’ Questioning Patterns and the Reasoning Behind Them

      • PST2B44
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Brianna Santangelo, AJ Richards

      • Type: Poster
      • One of teachers’ greatest tools in the classroom is questioning. It has long been theorized that higher level questioning leads to students developing a better understanding of the material but no one has examined the types of questions asked in physics classrooms in great detail. We used Bloom’s revised taxonomy to classify the questions asked by high school physics instructors and surveyed them on what they believe their questioning patterns to be. By analyzing the distribution of question types and the teachers’ self-perceived questioning patterns we take a first step to better understanding the use of questioning in physics classrooms.
      • Prevalence of College Student Conceptions about Buoyancy

      • PST2B46
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by DJ Wagner, Shannon Armstrong, Randon Hoselton

      • Type: Poster
      • We have developed a taxonomy of alternate conceptions concerning buoyancy,and we are investigating the prevalence of many of those conceptions in the college student population at Grove City College (GCC) and other collaborating institutions. This poster will present preliminary data describing the most, and least, prevalent conceptions in our sample.
      • Quantitative Exploration of the GaussGun and its Chemistry Connection

      • PST2B48
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Bradley Moser, Reed Macey

      • Type: Poster
      • Energy spans all scientific disciplines, yet physics courses rarely venture beyond traditional mechanical energy examples. Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences (IPLS) courses have recently attempted to make connections with topics in undergraduate biology and chemistry courses. As an example, the gauss gun receives attention as a system for exploring exothermic chemical reactions. Most inquiries of this system have been qualitative, emphasizing analogies. Due to this incomplete depiction of the gauss gun, introductory physics students at the University of New England found the system perplexing. To enhance comprehension, our study uncovers quantitative aspects including kinetic energy via photogates, magnetic energy from force measurements, and conservation of energy analysis. This analysis generated a new graphical and diagrammatic matrix model, as well as illustrations applied to specific chemical reactions and the photoelectric effect. These new models might increase the value of this demonstration.
      • Sense-making with Inscriptions in Quantum Mechanics*

      • PST2B50
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Erin Ronayne Sohr, Benjamin Dreyfus, Ayush Gupta, Andrew Elby

      • Type: Poster
      • In this presentation, we focus on students’ sense-making with a graphical representation commonly used in quantum mechanics textbooks; that of overlaid potential energy and wavefunction plots in the context of quantum well(s) and barriers. Previous research has pointed to a conflation of the energy and wavefunction axes as leading to common student difficulties in understanding phenomena such as tunneling. The existence of this difficulty has influenced QMCS survey items and design choices in several PhET simulations. We add to this research by investigating how students use and interact with this graphical representation while sense-making. Through fine-timescale analysis of video data from clinical interviews with engineering majors in a modern physics course, we document that the inscription can play both communicative and generative roles in the student's reasoning. We report the different ways in which the inscription gets embedded in students’ reasoning and potential instructional implications.
      • Shut Up and Calculate: Becoming a Quantum Physicist

      • PST2B52
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Anders Johansson*, Staffan Andersson, Minna Salminen-Karlsson, Maja Elmgren

      • Type: Poster
      • Educating new generations of physicists is often seen as a matter of attracting good students, teaching them physics and making sure that they graduate. Sometimes, questions are also raised about what could be done to increase diversity in recruitment. Our qualitative study of introductory quantum physics courses in Sweden, instead asks what it means to become a physicist, and whether certain ways of becoming a physicist and doing physics is privileged in this process. The results show that, although students have high and diverse expectations of the courses, a pronounced focus on techniques of calculation seem to place students in a position where the only right way of doing quantum physics is “shutting up and calculating.” This raises questions of how best to accommodate varying student motivations and make different ways of being a physicist possible.
      • Splits in Students’ Attitudes Toward Classical and Quantum Physics*

      • PST2B54
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Benjamin Dreyfus, Jessica Hoy, Erin Sohr, Ayush Gupta, Andrew Elby

      • Type: Poster
      • Instruments that measure students’ attitudes and epistemological beliefs about physics often assume implicitly that “physics” is monolithic. That is, while there are multiple dimensions to student attitudes, physics itself is treated as a single discipline. We administered a survey in modern physics courses for engineering students, with modified CLASS (Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey) survey items in which “physics” was changed to “classical physics” and “quantum physics,” and found significant splits between students’ self-reported attitudes toward classical and quantum physics, both pre- and post-instruction. Specifically, students display greater evidence of real-world connections and problem-solving sophistication with classical than with quantum physics. We also found that, under some conditions, quantum physics instruction was associated with a pre/post shift in attitudes toward classical physics.
  • Physics Education Research I

      • The Source of Student Engagement in IPLS

      • PST1D01
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Benjamin Geller, Chandra Turpen, Catherine Crouch

      • Type: Poster
      • Effectively teaching an Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences (IPLS) course means engaging life science students in a subject matter for which they may not have considerable preexisting interest. While we have found that the inclusion of topical examples of relevance to life-science students can help to engage students whose initial interest in physics is less developed, we have found that the inclusion of biological content is just one of several dimensions supporting student engagement in IPLS. When describing what is salient to them about their IPLS experiences, students are just as quick to cite particular pedagogical structures and supports as they are to cite issues relating directly to content choices. In this poster we begin to unpack this complex interplay of content and pedagogy in fostering student engagement in the IPLS classroom. We also describe the role that explicit messaging around disciplinary coherence may play in students’ experiences.
      • Group Dynamics on Group Exams

      • PST1D03
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Steven Wolf, William Burgess, Joi Walker

      • Type: Poster
      • Student group behavior in both a classroom and group exam setting in the context of a calculus-based introductory physics class was observed in order to explore the patterns of behavior within each classroom environment. This observation focused on cognitive, epistemic, and social aspects of student interactions. The grain size considered is both the individual student level, and the group level. Of particular interest is the emergence of common roles that arise across groups, as well as any differential behaviors between the regular classroom settings and group exam settings.
      • Developing an Interactive Tutorial on a Quantum Eraser

      • PST1D05
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Emily Marshman, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • We developed a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on a quantum eraser for students in upper-level quantum mechanics. The QuILT exposes students to contemporary topics in quantum mechanics and uses a guided approach to learning. It adapts existing visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about quantum phenomena and strives to help them develop the ability to apply quantum principles in physical situations. The quantum eraser apparatus in the gedanken (thought) experiments and simulations that students learn from in the QuILT uses a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with single photons. We also discuss findings from a preliminary in-class evaluation. This work is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
      • Developing and Evaluating Quantum Mechanics Formalism and Postulates Survey

      • PST1D07
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Emily Marshman, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • Development of multiple-choice tests related to a particular physics topicis important for designing research-based learning tools to reduce the difficulties related to the topic. We explore the difficulties that the advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum mechanics formalism and postulates. We developed a research-based multiple-choice survey that targets these issues to obtain information about the common difficulties and administered it to undergraduate and graduate students. We find that the advanced undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these topics. The survey can be administered to assess the effectiveness of various instructional strategies. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.
      • The Effects of SCALE-UP Intervention in Algebra-based Introductory Physics Classes

      • PST1D09
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Zeynep Topdemir, David Trusty, Ebru Oncul, Brian Thoms

      • Type: Poster
      • We have implemented SCALE-UP in half of the algebra-based introductory physics classes at Georgia State University. In this study, we compare lab and lectures activities for Lecture/Laboratory format and SCALE-UP. Also, we have investigated the effects of these differences on success and withdrawal rates, student conceptual learning as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), and student attitudes as measured by Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS). Even though SCALE-UP algebra-based physics classes show no significant increase in FCI gains over traditional classes, SCALE-UP intervention shows a significant improvement in CLASS favorable scores for both Conceptual Understanding and Problem Solving categories.
      • Time Evolution of Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanical Concepts

      • PST1D11
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Charles DeLeone
      • Type: Poster
      • Upper-division physics students often struggle with quantum concepts during their first exposure to full-blown quantum mechanics. Research into student learning of quantum concepts with tools such as the Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment have exposed challenges associated with student learning of concepts such as superposition and time evolution of states. But does student learning of these concepts persist and/or improve with further exposure to quantum concepts in a second semester course? This poster updates results from a multi-year study of a two-semester upper-division quantum course that uses a spins-first approach. Results concerning the robustness of student understanding of quantum concepts across representations along with issues particular to the spins-first approach will be presented.
      • Traditional Physics vs. IPLS: Comparing Student Experiences

      • PST1D13
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Max Franklin, Haley Gerardi, Benjamin Geller, Chandra Turpen, Catherine Crouch

      • Type: Poster
      • At Swarthmore College, we recently introduced a first-semester Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences (IPLS) course that draws on authentic biological examples relating to kinematics, Newtonian mechanics, and thermodynamics. Because the course is offered only every other year, we are uniquely situated to compare the experiences of those students who take the IPLS course to a similar set of students who take a traditional first-semester introductory physics course that covers the same topics but does not foreground biological connections. In this poster we draw on conceptual and attitudinal survey data, as well as a series of case-study interviews, to describe the conceptual, epistemological, and affective differences that we observe between the two student populations. We identify the features of the IPLS experience that were most salient to students, and suggest how particular course structures may have been especially important in supporting students’ ability to do well in the IPLS environment.
      • Using Google Tools to Follow Student Learning of Scientific Abilities

      • PST1D15
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Danielle Bugge, Eugenia Etkina

      • Type: Poster
      • High school physics students, initially unfamiliar with an inquiry-based environment, engaged in ISLE labs that focus on the development of student scientific abilities. We examine student lab reports in order to better understand the process students go through when they write these reports. Using the revision history feature on Google Documents provides additional insights into the development of these abilities, answering questions about factors such as time, ability type, and student grouping that influence student development of these abilities. Furthermore, this feature allows us to look at collaboration among students outside the classroom.
      • Using Phenomenography to Better Understand Student Development with Computational Physics

      • PST1D17
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Michael Obsniuk, Paul Irving, Macros Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • In Projects and Practices in Physics -- a highly interactive and technologically modern introductory physics classroom with a strong pedagogical foundation -- students are exposed to fundamental physics phenomena with the aid of computation. Within the context of this classroom, we have conducted a phenomenographic investigation of a small cohort of students. This cohort was exposed in-class to a “suite” of three scaffolded computational physics problems focusing on the fundamental physics phenomenon of force and motion. Over the three week duration of this “suite,” we invited the cohort to repeated semi-structured interviews, one for each problem, in order to observe their development in approach to computational problems. From an analysis of the students’ perceived variation in the computational features discerned to be critical, we have observed several qualitatively different categories of student development with modeling motion computationally.
      • Utilizing Student Expertise in Informing Programmatic Changes in STEM

      • PST1D19
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Felicia Davenport, Nicolette Sanders, Mel Sabella, Kristy Mardis

      • Type: Poster
      • The CSU Learning Assistant (LA) Program and the CSU S-STEM Program rely onstudent expertise and leadership to be successful. LAs are undergraduate students who partner with faculty to improve courses. This involves LAs working with faculty to brainstorm about ways to reach students in their classes, assist in the classroom to support active engagement, co-develop activities to support learning, and identify specific student resources and needs. These partnerships place LAs in roles of significant responsibility. S-STEM scholars are also engaged in leadership efforts at both the local and national level. They form committees to engage in outreach, social media, and professional event planning. At the national level, they are involved, as members of the NSF-funded Access Network. Access is a collaboration of equity-focused programs across institutions that empower students through mutual support. In this poster we explore the synergy between these programs and how they rely on student expertise to create programmatic change.
      • A Cross-sectional Study of Students’ Use of Mathematics in the Upper-Division

      • PST1D21
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Anna Turnbull, Leanne Doughty, Marcos Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • Upper-division physics courses introduce quantitative models that require students to use sophisticated mathematical tools to develop an understanding of them. We have investigated students' in-the-moment math reasoning during physics problem solving, through observations in dyad interviews. By conducting interviews over a range of students’ physics experience, we enabled a cross-sectional analysis of how students employ mathematical tools, particularly decomposing vectors and using multivariable integration. In investigating students’ reasoning underlying their use of those mathematical tools we have catalogued student difficulties and identified productive approaches for pedagogical purposes. We observed multiple patterns in students’ problem solving approaches. For example, when students were dissatisfied with their derived expression, they frequently decided to start again with a new approach without having examined the work that led them to their initial expression. In addition, the depth of reflection appears to be linked to students’ ability to readily interpret their derived expressions in the context of the problem.
      • A Radiation Conceptual Evaluation*

      • PST1D23
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Andy Johnson, Anna Hafele

      • Type: Poster
      • A radiation conceptual evaluation has been created to identify student thinking in the most problematic areas of ionizing radiation. The most common set of ideas about radiation is the "substance-like view" which places radiation in the wrong ontological category, leads to problematic ideas about contamination, and interferes with the scientific view of ionizing radiation as processes at the subatomic scale. The Rad CE identifies facets of this view along with other problematic beliefs such as "radiation is waves." This poster details the diagnostic capabilities of the current draft of the Rad CE, and the typical ideas that it identifies. The Rad CE is part of the Inquiry into Radioactivity project which enables radiation literacy among nonscience college and high school students. More information at http://www.camse.org/radiation. *The Inquiry into Radioactivity Project has been supported by NSF DUE grant 0942699. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
      • Adapting AAPT Lab Recommendations to Meet Local Conditions: DATA Lab*

      • PST1D25
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by William Martinez, Kelsey Funkhouser, Abhilash Nair, Marcos Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • The AAPT Recommendations for the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Curriculum developed broad learning goals, in part to focus physics laboratory instruction on critical practices that are best engaged within a laboratory. However, adapting these goals to an institution’s curriculum must involve molding these recommendations to local conditions. This poster will present the alignment of AAPT recommendations with locally implemented learning goals set forth at Michigan State University as we developed Design, Analysis, Tools, and Apprenticeship (DATA) Lab, an algebra-based lab for non-majors. Strategies and practices we employed, such as faculty interviews, in order to incorporate faculty input as well as develop buy-in will also be presented. *This work is funded by a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Science Education Grant.
      • Assessing Difficult to Assess Learning Goals - Formative Feedback in P3

      • PST1D29
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Paul Irving, Danny Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • P3 is a transformed introductory mechanics course at Michigan State University that focuses on the development of scientific practices. The design team, as part of the P3 course design made explicit attempts to assess learning goals that can often be perceived as being a part of the hidden curriculum or considered difficult to assess (for example: learning to work productively in a group). This assessment is in the form of formative feedback with students receiving a numbered grade and reflective commentary based around their interactions in the classroom for the week. In this presentation, case studies formed from student interviews conducted at the beginning and end of the semester are discussed to highlight how the formative feedback received, effected changes in student interactions in class. The presentation also highlights students’ reflections on the feedback and how the effect it had on them changed over time.
      • Attitudes, Approaches to Physics Problem Solving: Turkish and American Students

      • PST1D31
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Andrew Mason, Nuri Balta, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • The Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving Survey (AAPS) was developed in order to assess attitudes, as well as preferred approaches, towards physics problem solving. Establishment of validity and reliability was based on data from university-level students in introductory-level and graduate-level physics courses in the United States. However, the survey’s validity and reliability needs to be investigated for educational systems in other nations, e.g. the Turkish secondary and university students. We present data taken from physics students in three different types of Turkish high schools, as well as a section of university students in Turkey. Validity and reliability measurements are presented that indicate the survey is useful for both the American and Turkish school systems, and results showcase differences in grade level, school type, and gender. Principal component analysis with matrix rotation indicates groupings of the survey’s 33 items into potential item clusters.
      • Characterizing How Students Group Themselves for Group Exams

      • PST1D33
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Joss Ives
      • Type: Poster
      • When using ad hoc student groups for group exams, how do students group themselves? Are there clear preferences for grouping by sex, ability in the course or years in university? In courses with multiple opportunities to form these ad hoc groups, do these preferences change as the course proceeds? This research is part of a larger study investigating the factors that contribute to group success, both in terms of the group’s performance on that group exam as well as the performance of individuals on later assessments.
      • Comparing Teaching Effectiveness Across Years Using Background-Attenuated Learning Gains

      • PST1D35
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Brent Barker, Brittney Austin, Kayla Fouch

      • Type: Poster
      • Comparing learning gains between different offerings of the same course ishelpful for studying effectiveness of instruction. In small classes, fluctuations in student background can introduce confounding variables and make direct comparison difficult. In the present work, we correlate student backgrounds with learning gains on conceptual inventories in introductory physics and show a method for accounting for differences in student backgrounds. We compare two consecutive years of classes and demonstrate the affect of accounting for these differences in backgrounds.
      • Concept Inventories and the Next Generation of Assessment

      • PST1D37
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by James Laverty, Marcos Caballero

      • Type: Poster
      • In 2012, the National Research Council released A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. This report synthesized the literature on how students learn science into three dimensions that should be blended together in instruction, curriculum, and assessment. This "three-dimensional learning" is the basis for the Next Generation Science Standards and researchers have recently made calls to bring it to higher education as well. We have developed the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), which can characterize assessments in introductory science courses as aligning (or not) with scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. In this poster, I apply the 3D-LAP to some commonly used concept inventories in physics to characterize their alignment with the three dimensions from the Framework. I will explore the potential utility of these concept inventories in the era of the Next Generation Science Standards.
      • Content Knowledge for the Teaching of Energy: Assessing Classroom Artifacts

      • PST1D39
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Robert Zisk, Eugenia Etkina, Drew Gitomer

      • Type: Poster
      • Assignments and assessments that a teacher makes for his or her students can provide insight into the intellectual demand and expectations of a classroom, as well as the content addressed during instruction. As part of a study to develop assessments of teachers’ Content Knowledge for the Teaching of Energy, we developed a protocol to assess the intellectual demand of the assignments and assessments that a teacher uses during instruction. In this poster, we will describe our coding scheme, provide examples of artifacts collected from teachers during their unit on energy and discuss how the example artifacts are coded using our protocol. We will then show how the intellectual demand of artifacts as measured by our protocol is related to other measures of practice, such as classroom observation measures, a teacher’s content knowledge for teaching and student outcomes.
      • Continued Use of Research-based Instructional Strategies After Paired Teaching

      • PST1D41
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Jared Stang, Linda Strubbe

      • Type: Poster
      • Paired (or co-)teaching is an arrangement in which two faculty are collaboratively responsible for all aspects of teaching a course. By pairing an instructor experienced in research-based instructional strategies (RBIS) with an instructor with little or no experience in RBIS, paired teaching can be used to promote the adoption of RBIS. We report on several examples of instructors who were the relative novices in such pairs. Using data from in-class observations, the Teaching Practices Inventory, and interviews with the instructors, we characterize the extent to which they have continued using RBIS in the courses they have taught after pair-teaching. Preliminary results indicate both a continued use of RBIS when teaching in the same course that they pair-taught in and some transfer of RBIS to new contexts.
      • Student Discourse About Equity in an Introductory College Physics Course

      • PST1D43
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Abigail Daane
      • Type: Poster
      • In a typical introductory college calculus-based physics course, the makeup of the classroom looks much like the physics community, including few women and even fewer underrepresented minorities. This lack of representation is well known, but is rarely an explicit topic of conversation in physics courses. In an introductory physics course at Seattle Pacific University, I facilitated several activities aimed at raising student awareness about the disparity between the demographics of the physics community and the demographics of the general population. Students had the opportunity to discuss and reflect about what it means to do physics, who does it, and why particular groups of people are not equitably represented in the field. In this presentation, I share preliminary findings about the impact of and response to these activities.
      • Student Use of Symbolic Forms When Constructing Differential Vector Elements*

      • PST1D45
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Benjamin Schermerhorn, John Thompson

      • Type: Poster
      • As part of an effort to examine students’ understanding of the structure of non-Cartesian coordinate systems and the differential elements associated with these systems when using vector calculus in electricity and magnetism (E&M), students in junior E&M were interviewed in pairs. In one task, students constructed differential length and volume elements for an unconventional spherical coordinate system. Here we describe one aspect of this study, which involves identifying the symbolic forms (Sherin, 2001) students invoked when building or checking these vector expressions. For example, the parts-of-a-whole form was particularly useful to students, allowing them to carve out the specific component structure of the needed vector differential length. Students also used the dependence form to account for dimensionality during construction of each component. Further analysis addresses the role of these symbolic forms in student performance on the task.
      • Surveying Student Understanding of Thermodynamic Processes and First and Second Laws: Development and Validation of a Survey

      • PST1D47
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Chandralekha Singh, Ben Brown

      • Type: Poster
      • Research-based conceptual multiple-choice surveys are useful tools for evaluating student understanding of various topics and carefully developed and validated surveys can play an important role in evaluating the effectiveness of a curriculum and instruction. When compared to free response questions, multiple choice questions are free of grader bias and multiple-choice tests can be graded with great efficiency. Well-developed prior surveys focusing on different topics reveal that traditional instructional approaches are not effective in helping a majority of students develop a good understanding of various physics concepts and students in physics courses have many common conceptual difficulties about different topics. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a survey of Thermodynamic Processes and the First and Second Laws (STPFaSL). The validity and reliability of this survey along with the student difficulties with these topics among various groups from introductory students to physics graduate students will be discussed. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • The Effect of Themed Learning Community on Physics Students' Performance

      • PST1D49
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 10:00PM
      • by Wataru Hashimoto
      • Type: Poster
      • The current study will focus on the impact of a calculus and physics Themed Learning Community (TLC) in order to compare to non-TLC sections on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), which tests student’s conceptual understanding of physics. TLCs offer classes with the same major, smaller size, and in conjunction with two or three related classes. For example, students in TLC calculus and TLC physics will have the same classmates, and intention of TLC is to create the connection between students. As a result, the normalized FCI gain showed that TLC students performed significantly better than Non-TLC students. Therefore, we will further investigate the reason why the TLC students performed better than non-TLC students, by categorizing the FCI, using the FCI to study students' misconceptions, and combining the new data that we collected in fall 2015 to increase statistical significance.
      • Using the Cognitive Reflection Test to Investigate Student Reasoning Inconsistencies*

      • PST1D51
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Nathaniel Grosz, Mila Kryjevskaia, Cody Gette, Andrew Boudreaux, MacKenzie Stetzer

      • Type: Poster
      • Students who demonstrate correct conceptual knowledge and formal reasoningapproaches on one physics question often abandon these approaches in favor of more intuitive reasoning on an isomorphic question. The heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning suggests that the intuitive approaches used by these students stem from the heuristic process and are cued by salient, distracting features of the isomorphic problems. This apparent failure to engage the analytic process productively may stem from a lack of metacognition. We speculate that the students who continue to use formal reasoning on the isomorphic problems tend to be more reflective, analytical thinkers. In order to investigate this possibility, we have been using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) in conjunction with a pair of isomorphic questions to examine the extent to which students’ reflection abilities impact performance.
      • Toward a Conceptual Model for Problem Solving in Multimedia Learning*

      • PST1D02
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Xian Wu, Amy Rouinfar, Elise Agra, Lester Loschky, N. Sanjay Rebello

      • Type: Poster
      • Problem solving is one of the most important topics in physics education research. Due to the recent popularity of online courses and distance education in physics, studies have begun to focus on teaching problem solving in computer-based environments. Over the past four years, we have put our efforts toward developing a conceptual model that combines classic problem-solving theory with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Three eye-tracking studies have been guided by this conceptual model. The data of eye movements and problem-solving performance is consistent with our conceptual model and has also enhanced the model to further our understanding of students’ problem-solving processes and its implications for multimedia instructional design.
      • Decreased Failure Rates Across all Ethnicities in UC Davis CLASP

      • PST1D04
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Mary Chessey*, David Webb, Wendell Potter

      • Type: Poster
      • We examine overall student success in the reformed large introductory physics course for undergraduate bioscience students at UC Davis and find significant reductions in failure rates for all ethnicities as compared to the traditional lecture format of the same course. Using statistical analysis of tens of thousands of student course grades across six years, we find that the UC Davis Collaborative Learning through Active Sense-making in Physics (CLASP) style interactive engagement course is associated with decreased failure rates, which are uniformly low across all ethnicities. In the traditional lecture format course, which the CLASP course replaced, failure rates vary widely between ethnicity groups. While the failure rates in the CLASP course are smaller for all ethnicities, other measures of student outcomes remained unchanged or improved(1).
      • Developing and Evaluating a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) on the Double-slit Experiment

      • PST1D06
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Ryan Sayer, Alexandru Maries, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • Learning quantum mechanics is challenging, even for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Interactive tutorials which build on students’ prior knowledge can be useful tools to enhance student learning. We have been investigating student difficulties with the quantum mechanics pertaining to the double-slit experiment in various situations. Here we discuss the development and evaluation of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) which makes use of an interactive simulation to improve student understanding. We summarize common difficulties and discuss the extent to which the QuILT is effective in addressing them in two types of courses.
      • The Effects of Grader Assessment Feedback on Student Motivation

      • PST1D08
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Kaala Cheney, Annie Chase, Cassandra Paul

      • Type: Poster
      • Grader Assessment Feedback (GAF) -- defined as any written information a grader gives the student on a test, quiz, and/or any other form of assessment -- is a powerful tool that instructors can use to help students construct knowledge. Students from different GAF-driven introductory college-level physics courses at San Jose State University were invited to complete a web-based survey at the end of their semester. Through a hypothetical scenario survey question, we examine how students think an extrinsically motivated student should study for a grade and how an intrinsically motivated student should study for understanding. Previous research suggests that instructor use of non-traditional GAF methods correlate with student beliefs that studying for a good grade involves the same efforts as studying for understanding. We use qualitative methods to examine student responses to determine whether different types of GAF influence how students believe intrinsically motivated vs. extrinsically motivated students should study.
      • The Power of Self Reflection in Student Groups

      • PST1D10
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Emily Schreiner*, Shannon Wachowski

      • Type: Poster
      • Several studies have been done with regard to group work in the high school setting. These studies often focus on group roles or methods of instruction in “good” group behaviors. In contrast, this study explores the impact of student self reflection on group behavior. Changes in group dynamics and academic performance were analyzed after students engaged in several self reflections on their skills in group work. Over 100 students participated in the study from physics and math courses. Data was collected from coding video observations, analyzing academic performance, and comparing pre- and post-surveys. The goal of this study was to collect data that supports the practice of engaging students in self reflection as an effective inquiry-based approach to improving group interactions and productivity. Analysis of the results and, experiences with implementing a group learning atmosphere will be shared.
      • Tracking Shifts in Students’ Understanding: Force, Acceleration, and Graphs

      • PST1D12
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Trevor Smith, Nicholas Wright, Ian Griffin

      • Type: Poster
      • Many studies have shown that students often struggle to interpret and generate graphs of various physical quantities. This can be seen in students’ responses to the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation when class performance differs on questions asking students to select graphs of force vs. time for a described motion compared to questions asking them to choose verbal descriptions of forces. We have previously shown that students are more likely to improve on the graph questions than the natural language questions. We expand on these results by incorporating data from multiple colleges and by including correlations between students’ choices of graphs of force vs. time and acceleration vs. time for identical motions. We relate these results to other analyses of the data and provide evidence that using consistency plots to represent individual students’ transitions from pretest to posttest provides rich information that is unavailable in other representations.
      • Using Isomorphic Problems to Probe Student Understanding of Speed

      • PST1D16
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Sheh Lit Chang, Peter Shaffer

      • Type: Poster
      • We report results from a preliminary investigation into student ability tosolve a basic multi-step problem involving both accelerated and uniform motions. Isomorphic questions were asked in a variety of contexts, at different times during instruction in introductory physics classes. One of the questions was also given to a range of student populations. The findings reveal a general failure of students to interpret and apply the concepts of average and instantaneous speed that persist at similar levels from high school to university.
      • Using Within-Cluster Regression Analysis to Understand Student Differences

      • PST1D18
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by John Stewart, Rachel Stoiko

      • Type: Poster
      • This poster presents an analysis of the effect of pre-preparation and effort on the performance in a physics class using data collected over 21 semesters (N=1747). Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct subgroups of students with different levels of incoming preparation for the class and distinctly different out-of-class study behaviors. Regression analysis within each cluster was then used to understand the factors affecting learning for these subgroups. Within the clusters, the degree to which different examination study behaviors, patterns of submitting assignments, and time invested in homework affected overall test performance was investigated and strong differences identified. These differences serve to partially explain the lack of correlation between beneficial behaviors and class outcomes.
      • Wave Functions & Measurements in Quantum Mechanics: Student Ideas in Chemistry and Physics

      • PST1D20
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Gina Passante
      • Type: Poster
      • Quantum mechanics (QM) is not only an important theory in physics, but also in chemistry, electrical engineering, and computer science. Although quantum mechanics taught primarily in physics departments, it is also taught in other fields, and very little research has been done on students understanding across these disciplines. In this work we focus on the similarities and differences found in student responses to questions asked in both physics and chemistry courses that cover QM. In particular, we investigate student understanding of wave functions and how they relate to the probability of measurement outcomes in QM.
      • A Nonverbal Intelligence Test as a Predictor of FCI Gain

      • PST1D22
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Matthew Semak, Richard Dietz, Cynthia Galovich

      • Type: Poster
      • We have administered a commercial, nonverbal, intelligence test (the GAMA – General Ability Measure for Adults) to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if this test can be used in successfully predicting normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). The GAMA is made up of four subtests as it poses four types of problems to be solved: matching, analogies, sequences, and construction. For this population, we examine how the performance on each part correlates to their normalized FCI gain. Our analysis is gender specific and includes the students’ overall performance on the GAMA as a predictor as well.
      • A Taxonomy of Conceptions about Buoyancy

      • PST1D24
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by DJ Wagner, Shannon Armstrong, Randon Hoselton, Ashley Miller

      • Type: Poster
      • Numerous studies, dating back at least as far as Piaget, have used buoyancy to probe students’ understanding of density. A few studies have instead probed students’ understanding of buoyancy in terms of pressure, buoyant force and Archimedes’ Principle. In this poster, we present an overview of the latest version of our buoyancy conception taxonomy. Included conceptions were collected both from prior studies involving subjects having a variety of ages, and from our own interviews and assessments given to college students.
      • An Analysis of the Misconception about Shape Dependence of Buoyancy

      • PST1D26
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Sachiko Tosa
      • Type: Poster
      • The concept about buoyancy often exhibits difficulties for students to understand. In this study, student misconception about the shape dependence of buoyancy was explored through a survey and interviews. The study was conducted in two science workshops and a college class (N=166). The survey was used before and after the treatment to examine if the participants understand 1) the existence of buoyant force in water, and 2) independence of buoyant force on the shape of the object if it is submerged under water. The results show that more than 90% of the participants understand the existence of buoyant force in water after the treatment. However, the results indicated that about 50% of the participating children and 20% of adults hold the misconception about the shape-dependence of buoyancy even after the treatment. The persistence of the misconception and its connection to real-life experience is further discussed based on the interview results.
      • Analogous Patterns of Student Reasoning Difficulties in Introductory Physics and Upper-Level Quantum Mechanics

      • PST1D28
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Emily Marshman, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • Very little is known about how the nature of expertise in introductory andadvanced courses compares in knowledge-rich domains such as physics. We develop a framework to compare the similarities and differences between learning and patterns of student difficulties in introductory physics and quantum mechanics. Based upon our framework, we argue that the qualitative patterns of student reasoning difficulties in introductory physics bear a striking resemblance to those found for upper-level quantum mechanics. The framework can guide the design of teaching and learning tools. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.
      • Assessing Gender Differences in Students' Understanding of Magnetism

      • PST1D30
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Chandralekha Singh, Jing Li

      • Type: Poster
      • We investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism using a multiple-choice test whose reliability and validity have been substantiated earlier. We also conduct individual interviews with a subset of students to get a better understanding of the rationale behind their responses. We find that females performed significantly worse than males when the test was given both as a pre-test and post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of females was significantly worse in the post-test but there was no statistical difference in the pre-test performance of males and females. These trends persisted regardless of the instructors. We discuss possible reasons for these differences. Supported by NSF.
      • Challenges Engaging Students via Interactive e-learning Tutorials for Introductory Physics

      • PST1D32
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Seth DeVore, Emily Marshman, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • As self-paced adaptive e-learning tools become increasingly available, a critical issue educators encounter is implementing strategies for ensuring that all students engage with them as intended. Here, we discuss the effectiveness of adaptive e-learning tutorials as self-study tools in large enrollment brick and mortar introductory physics courses. These interactive tutorials were developed via research in physics education and were found to be effective for a diverse group of introductory physics student volunteers in one-on-one implementation. Our findings suggest that many students in need of out of class remediation via self-study tools may have difficulty motivating themselves and may lack self-regulation and time-management skills to engage effectively with the adaptive e-learning tools especially designed to help them learn at their own pace. We conclude by proposing a theoretical framework to help students with diverse prior preparations engage effectively with self-study tools. Supported by the NSF.
      • Cognitive Wrappers: Learning How to Learn Physics

      • PST1D34
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Patricia Soto, Gintaras Duda

      • Type: Poster
      • Cognitive exam wrappers are tools that focus on using metacognition and reflection skills to motivate students to analyze the factors that contribute to their performance on exams and plan strategies that will strengthen their study habits to improve their exam performance. Cognitive wrappers, utilized here in an introductory physics for the life sciences (IPLS) course, ask students to reflect on the following: 1) the amount of time they invested in preparing for an exam, 2) the root causes of errors made on the exam, 3) study habits that students feel positively impacted their preparation, and 4) strategies that students are willing to implement to improve their performance. Students also have the opportunity to provide suggestions to the instructor that they think will help improve their learning. In this work we report on the study habits that students employ to prepare for a physics exam, self-reported root-causes of mistakes on exams, and strategies that students are willing to try to improve their performance. In addition, we will report on the insight the instructor has gained to build a deeper understanding of the student population in this IPLS course.
      • Comparing Two Activities’ Effectiveness Improving Reasoning with Multiple-Variable Graphed Information

      • PST1D36
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Rebecca Rosenblatt, James Peronne

      • Type: Poster
      • Past findings show large differences in student ability to use, and reasonwith, certain graphed data. Namely, many students incorrectly assume there must be dependence between the axes of any graph whether-or-not the data suggests a relation and whether-or-not a controlled experiment was done. In addition, students have similar difficulties reasoning with multivariable data displayed on a graph in multiple trend-lines. A majority of the errors made are consistent with a failure to properly control variables and/or reasoning illogically about the data. We developed and pilot tested two different one-hour group work activities to improve student understanding. One activity was laboratory based and focused on control of variables and experimentation. The other was recitation based and focused on logical reasoning and data manipulation. Results show the relative effectiveness of the activities and suggest interesting facts about the importance of logical reasoning vs. control of variables when working with graphed data.
      • Conceptual Blending: An Analytical Framework for Immersive Computer-Supported Learning

      • PST1D38
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Bor Gregorcic, Jesper Haglund

      • Type: Poster
      • Modern technology allows students to engage in hands-on exploration of previously experimentally inaccessible topics. One example is using an interactive whiteboard and the Algodoo software to allow students to throw planets into orbits around a star. While students quickly accept the idea of them being able to throw planets into orbit, building an expert-like understanding of the topic of orbital motion requires a coordination of different perspectives on what is going on in such an activity. Conceptual blending is an analytical framework used to interpret cognitive processes as they take place at the meeting point of different mental input spaces. These can include physics formalisms, and everyday experiences of interacting with the real or the computer world. The poster will present a blending analysis of a student-centered activity in astronomy that engages students in playful inquiry.
      • Context Dependent Mindset: Building New Frameworks and Measurement Methodologies

      • PST1D40
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Angela Little, Vashti Sawtelle, Bridget Humphrey

      • Type: Poster
      • Mindset is a long-standing area of the psychology literature that focuses on students’ beliefs about whether intelligence can grow and improve. Much of the mindset research involves Likert scale survey items such as, “Your intelligence is something about you that you can’t change very much.” People are often characterized as having either a growth or fixed mindset, however, Dweck recently noted the importance of “portraying people as mixtures,” in various contexts (Dweck, 2015). Yet, methodologically, it is not possible to examine these “mixtures” with current broad survey tools. We draw from lessons learned from the science beliefs literature that similarly shifted to studying the context-dependent nature of beliefs through, “naturalistic case studies, including open-format interviews” (Hammer & Elby, 2002). In this presentation we examine preliminary interview data as a way of moving forward in studying issues of mindset.
      • Student Difficulties with Quantum States While Translating State Vectors in Dirac Notation to Wave Functions in Position and Momentum Representations

      • PST1D42
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Emily Marshman, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • Dirac notation is often used in upper-level quantum mechanics courses, butstudents struggle with this representation. To investigate the difficulties that advanced students (i.e., upper-level undergraduate and graduate students) have while translating state vectors in Dirac notation to wave functions in position and momentum representations, we administered free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducted individual interviews with students. We find that students display common difficulties with these topics. This work is funded by the National Science Foundation.
      • Student Ideas About Coordinate Systems in the Upper Division

      • PST1D44
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Brian Farlow, Mike Loverude, Marlene Vega, Warren Christensen

      • Type: Poster
      • As part of a broader study on student thinking about mathematics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, we report on students’ ideas about coordinate systems in the upper division. Early evidence suggests that upper-division physics students struggle to answer conceptual and pictorial questions requiring the use of Cartesian and non-Cartesian coordinate systems. Specifically, students have difficulty identifying the motion of objects using plane polar coordinates. Not recognizing that both radial displacement and polar angle change with respect to time for motion along non-circular paths is a specific example of this difficulty. We report findings from one-on-one interviews that used a think-aloud protocol designed to shed light on student thinking within this domain.
      • Surveying Introductory Physics Students’ Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving

      • PST1D46
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Andrew Mason, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in a science domain can greatly impact their actual problem solving practices and also influence their motivation to learn and ultimately the development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey [1] and administered it to students in the introductory physics courses in a typical research university in the United States. Here, we discuss the development and validation of the survey and analysis of the responses to the survey questions of students in introductory physics courses. The introductory physics students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of physics faculty members and graduate students. We find that introductory students are in general less expert-like than the physics faculty members and graduate students. Moreover, on some AAPS survey questions, the responses of students and faculty have unexpected trends and should be interpreted carefully.
      • Teaching Diffusion Using a Beach Ball*

      • PST1D48
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Bradley Moser, David Grimm, James Vesenka

      • Type: Poster
      • Students have substantial difficulties applying physics concepts to anatomy and physiology (and vice versa). We have developed a kinesthetic diffusion model requiring students to apply multiple concepts (velocity, impulse, pressure, viscosity and statistical mechanics) to understanding diffusion. Students play the role of both participants and observers to the Brownian motion of a blood cell modeled by a beach ball. The activity additionally requires a pair of tennis balls/student, meter sticks for recording positions, a rope boundary (10-m diameter) and a flat surface such as a gym floor. The mean position versus collision event (time interval) from several trials is analyzed in lab to generate a macroscopic diffusion constant. Lab discussion connects the macroscopic diffusion to demystify microscopic behaviors such as aroma diffusion from popping corn, dye diffusion in a petri dish, or Brownian motion of silica beads observed with an optical microscope.
      • Student Attitudes, Network Positions, and Conceptual Gains in Introductory Physics

      • PST1D50
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Adrienne Traxler, Raym Alzahrani

      • Type: Poster
      • Student attitudes toward physics typically worsen over the first semester of introductory calculus-based physics, as measured by instruments like the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS). Larger courses are particularly linked with these negative shifts, with positive shifts mostly measured in smaller courses using active learning. However, students in a large course may have very different experiences depending on whether they are socially isolated or work in collaborative groups. Social network analysis provides tools to distinguish between isolated and well-connected students within the same course and examine this possible latent variable in attitudinal shifts. Here, we compare CLASS shifts with students' initial and final network positions for several sections of introductory calculus-based physics. Where available, CLASS scores and shifts will also be compared to students' conceptual gains to form a more complete picture of their physics experience over the semester.
  • Post-deadline Posters

      • Radioactive Nuts and Fertilizers—Quantitation of Specific Dose Levels

      • PST3A01
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Amogh Anakru, Alexander Chang, Tarun Maddali, Daniela Buna

      • Type: Poster
      • The current study investigates a method for the absolute quantitation of Potassium-40 (K-40) in a variety of foods and fertilizers by comparing the energy efficiency method for a NaI scintillation detector with the KF-calibration method that eliminates the dependence on the geometry of the setup. Data show that the ratio of the specific activities of chemicals with known quantities of K-40 have reasonably low error (<5%) while individual absolute activities have errors less than 15%. The study also shows that common foods such as Brazilian nuts, raw almonds, and pecans have measurable levels of K-40, and based on their specific activities, one can calculate their dose to human tissue. While the dose is extremely low (negligible as compared to the sum of all natural sources), this method tested reliable procedures to be used for other measurements of radioactivity in the environment, such as common fertilizers and leakage from nuclear reactors.
      • Study of Students’ Mental Models about Electrostatics in Introductory Physics

      • PST3A03
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Jing Zhang*, Lin Ding

      • Type: Poster
      • We investigated students’ mental models of matter and interaction in electrostatics. A total of 137 Chinese students from an introductory physics class participated in the study. They completed 22 multiple choice items and eight open-ended questions covering the topics of electronic structure of physical matter, electronic field, and electrostatic interaction. Over 80% of the students consider charge as the essential attribute of physical matter, but it cannot move in a dielectric. Around 61% of the students think that electronic field is not a matter as it is invisible, intangible, and devoid of molecules. However, those who view electronic field as matter cannot clearly describe its property. For the question on electrostatic interaction, 88% of the students use “action at distance model” although they know that the charges’ interaction is caused by the effect of electric field. Implications of our findings for teaching will be discussed.
      • Development of a Discharge-Free Leaf Electroscope

      • PST3A05
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Jung-Bog Kim, Soyeon Lee lee

      • Type: Poster
      • A leaf electroscope is used for demonstrating effectively electrostatic forces in middle, high schools, and introductory college physics laboratories. The leaf electroscope should be charged with the same polarity as a charged object when the charged object is touched, and then metal leaves should be spread apart by repulsion. However, in some cases, errors charged with the opposite sign occur. This problem is solved by replacing the leaf of aluminum foil by other material that has larger capacitance and is light and flexible. Flyer of Fun-fly-stick (Unitech Toys company) is very suitable for these requirements. In addition, sharp edges where the electric field is strong can be removed by making the leave’s ends round.
      • Improving Students’ Study Skills in Conceptual Physics Course

      • PST3A07
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Polin Yadak
      • Type: Poster
      • Conceptual physics courses are being offered as a general science course in most schools and is very popular among freshman students who do not want to deal with deep math in their general courses. Therefore, most students who enroll in conceptual physics have a poor mathematics foundation, and poor study skills. In order to improve students’ study skills, the author provided multiple-choice sample questions for each chapter in addition to the homework assignments. Students were encouraged to find the correct answers to the questions in their textbook. The students were required to meet with the instructor or GTA’s assigned to the course to check their answers for correctness. This method was implemented in a class of 159 students and after the first midterm in which students received a letter grade C. For second midterm sample questions were provided to the students at the end of each chapter. The students received a letter grade B for their second midterm. The above result is for conceptual physics offered in fall 2015 and the author is implementing the same method in her class in current semester. During the current semester the author is interviewing students to have more information regarding their study method and will have further information at the end of spring 2016.
      • Using Modeling Physics to Teach Electricity and Magnetism

      • PST3A09
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by John Roeder
      • Type: Poster
      • The electricity and magnetism portion of the physics elective for juniors and seniors at The Calhoun School in New York City has been taught the past three years with the four-unit curriculum taught at the STEMTeachersNYC Modeling Physics Workshop in Electricity and Magnetism in 2013. The four units in this course are 1) Electric Forces and Fields, 2) Electric Potential, 3) Electric Circuits, and 4) Magnetism. Key ideas are developed from the basis of evidence in all four units.
      • Using Engineering Notebooks to Evaluate Student Understanding of Physics Concepts

      • PST3A11
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Jennifer Rushing, Pamalee Brady

      • Type: Poster
      • This study focuses on the application of engineering notebooks to support student learning of engineering practices and physics concepts. A case study approach was used to analyze student teams in four high school physics classes tasked with designing Rube Goldberg Machines following a unit on forces, motion, and energy. Teams were required to document their design and construction processes in an electronic engineering notebook. The notebooks were examined for evidence of student understanding and communication of the engineering design process, reflective learning, and kinematic principles. Research has documented that science teacher efforts focus more on engineering practices such as teamwork and communication rather than the application of the science concepts that are important to engineering problem solving. The objective of this study was to identify tools and practices that would aid K-12 teachers in effectively integrating engineering into curricula.
      • A Comparison of Graphical Representations of E&M Plane Waves

      • PST3A13
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Michael Wilson, Robert Beichner

      • Type: Poster
      • It is well known that plane waves in electricity and magnetism (E&M) are misunderstood. Particularly, the traditional graphical representation of these plane waves is misleading and students find it confusing. A possible improvement has been designed using an animated vector field. Upper undergraduate and graduate physics students were presented each graphical representation of E&M plane waves. The students were asked to describe what each picture represents in detail. Students’ reactions to those two representations is compared, and insight into the content delivered in each graphical representation is interpreted as well as insight into the direction of future research on this topic.
      • A “Green” Spinning Coil for Measuring the Earth's Magnetic Field

      • PST3A15
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Xueli Zou, Eric Dietz, Jaydie Lee, Christopher Ard, Steven Sun

      • Type: Poster
      • A key laboratory exercise in our introductory electricity and magnetism course demonstrates an application of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. In the laboratory, students are to measure the magnetic field of the Earth by rotating a coil of wire and measuring the resulting induced voltage. For this experiment a customized apparatus has been designed and tested, the resulting data from which is compared against accepted experimental data. This poster will present a live demonstration of this new spinning coil lab and address its unique advantages both in physical operations and in student learning, compared to the traditional lab using a motor-powered spinning coil.
      • CU-Prime: Empowering Students to Build Inclusive Physics Communities

      • PST3A16
      • Wed 07/20, 3:00PM - 3:45PM
      • by Benjamin Pollard
      • Type: Poster
      • CU-Prime is a student-run organization whose goal is to increase inclusionin the Physics Department at the University of Colorado Boulder, especially for women, people of color, first-generation students, and others from underrepresented groups in STEM. Founded in 2013, CU-Prime has grown into a vibrant organization offering four interconnected programs: a talk series, a one-credit class, a mentorship program, and internal diversity workshops. Fueled by the dedication of undergraduate and graduate student organizers, CU-Prime has become an established entity in the department, on campus, and beyond. CU-Prime is also one of the founding organizations of the Access Network, a collaboration between similar programs across the nation. While CU-Prime is still new and constantly improving, several lessons are emerging that could benefit similar programs and efforts working towards goals of equity, inclusion, and making a lasting positive impact on the culture of physics.
      • Bringing the Hour of Code (TM) to the Physics Classroom

      • PST3A02
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Chris Orban, Christopher Porter, Kathleen Harper, Richelle Teeling-Smith, Mandeep Gill

      • Type: Poster
      • As websites like code.org reach wider and younger audiences, the possibilities expand for incorporating programming into introductory STEM courses at the university level. We discuss the processing.org framework which is designed to give first-time programmers a powerful interface for creating interactive graphics and games. The processing.org framework was used to develop eight different programming exercises that were integrated into two introductory physics classes at OSU Marion campus that do not normally include programming content. We discuss the learning objectives of these exercises, including broader goals in STEM education, and present student outcomes from working through the required programming assignments. Possibilities for incorporating programming exercises into courses in other disciplines is also briefly discussed.
      • Development and Application of Course for Pre-service Teacher Training Based on LA Program

      • PST3A04
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Hu Jun Jiang, Jung Bog Kim, Jiwon Lee, Yelin Moon

      • Type: Poster
      • In order to solve the problem of curriculum for teacher preparation, we develop a practical course using learning assistant (LA) program and apply to pre-service teachers. The summative evaluation scores of students with learning assistants (LAs) are higher than scores of students without learning assistants. These results show that learning assistants play a role to improve students' understanding of scientific concepts. We also investigate the level of students' satisfaction in learning assistant activity by questionnaire survey including five categories: understanding of learners, questioning strategy, learning guide for scientific concepts, guide in discussion, and assessment for learners. Almost all of the students said that they are very satisfied with learning assistants' activities.
      • Effects of Learning Assistant on Changes of Students’ Mental Model

      • PST3A06
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Jinwoo Mo, Jung-Bog Kim, Jiwon Lee, Yelin Moon, Hu Jun Jiang

      • Type: Poster
      • This study is to identify understandings of concept when Learning Assistant(LA) help students. Peer Instruction were used for teaching sound contents to three group (9 students) with LA and comparative three group (9 students) without LA in class. They are all undergraduate students in KNUE and taking this course as liberal arts. So their majors are so mixed. LAs have played a role of inducing to involve actively students in peer discussions by questioning properly and helped the progress of the discussion. Peer Instruction on a concept test in class were recorded for collect data. Collected data were analyzed and students’ mental models of sound were classified as "Entity progress obstruction model", "Entity transmission model", and "Wave model". According to the results of the research, students with LA could develop scientific mental model (Wave model) easier than students without LA.
      • Optics and Photonics Training for Inquisitive eXperimentalists (OPTIX): Facilitating the Transition from Teaching to Research Labs

      • PST3A08
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Michaela Kleinert, David Altman

      • Type: Poster
      • Willamette University's physics department is developing an innovative, hands-on laboratory experience for sophomores and juniors. Capitalizing on the optics expertise of the department’s faculty, the program is called the Optics and Photonics Training for Inquisitive eXperimentalists (OPTIX) and has been supported by an NSF IAP grant (#1505919). The goal of OPTIX is to facilitate the transition from introductory lab experiences using teaching-grade equipment to more open-ended exploration in our faculty research labs. Through OPTIX, we provide students with a dedicated space (an “optics playground”) with research-grade optics equipment. We are in the process of developing modules that are designed to foster deep, inquiry-based learning. These modules will be implemented in our sophomore and junior level lab-based courses Modern Physics and Advanced Topics in Experimental Physics (ATEP). In this poster we present the first modules that we are currently testing in ATEP, and discuss pre- and post-assessment of students performing these modules. We also compare students' success in these newly designed modules to their performance in our previously used junior-level lab exercises.
      • Using Sage Math Cloud for Collaborative Modern Physics Labs

      • PST3A10
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Michael Huster
      • Type: Poster
      • SageMath.org recently (2013) launched SageMathCloud, a web-based, open source, cloud computing and course management system. It includes filehosting in a Ubuntu environment in which users can collaborate on Jupyter (IPython) notebooks, LaTeX documents, Linux terminal and more running on private virtual machines. The students each have their own accounts and they can work collaboratively with other users. I used this for the first time in the spring semester. The course management system allowed me to easily push folders with pdfs of articles, assignments, skeleton analysis notebooks, sample data files, etc. to specific pairs of students, then interact with them, comment on their work, debug programs, and collect final documents. I have found that students with any programming background can easily adapt to this environment. It is a very effective way of introducing second-year students to authentic scientific collaboration. Examples will be shown of student work.
      • The Construction of Novice Scientist’s Activity System and Networks: A Case Study of Participants in Undergraduate Research Program

      • PST3A12
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Jiwon Lee
      • Type: Poster
      • This study analyzes how novice researcher makes his research activity system and networks and how research process goes on when he enters the science field. The subject of this study is referred to as Student A who participates in Undergraduate Research Program (URP). The data about the process of performing Student A's first research, including structuring his activity system and making relations to other activity systems, etc., were collected using ethnographic research methods. The collected data were analyzed based on the framework of cultural-historical activity theory.
      • A Decade of HI-STAR: Authentic Research Experience for Secondary Students

      • PST3A14
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Michael Nassir, James Armstrong, Geoffrey Mathews, Mary Ann Kadooka

      • Type: Poster
      • Our annual Hawaii Student/Teacher Astronomy Research (HI STAR) Program seeks to further the STEM interest and skills of motivated 8th-to-11th-grade students through a combination of intensive astronomy education and authentic research experience. Every summer, 20 students attend a week-long residential "camp" on the Univ. of Hawaii campus. Daily lessons, activities, and guest speakers rapidly survey essential astronomical concepts. After an introduction to basic data-reduction tools, students complete week-long team projects under the supervision of professional astronomy mentors. During the six months that follow, students carry out long-term astronomy research projects for submission to their local science fairs. In the past four years, 80% of students completed their long-term projects, and several have advanced to the International Science and Engineering Fair.
      • Smart Classroom: The Impacts Brought to Traditional Physics Learning

      • PST3A17
      • Wed 07/20, 3:45PM - 4:30PM
      • by Xiaoming Zhai, Meilan Zhang, Yuying Guo

      • Type: Poster
      • Smart-classroom is a teaching and learning management system within 1:1 multi-touch mobile devices. We selected 454 samples from a high school with smart-classroom system, and conducted a followed-up study for a year. We surveyed the use of Smart-classroom, the extent to which it changed the traditional physics instruction practice, etc., and examined the in-class and after-school impacts of using frequency and duration on physics interest and physics achievement for students with different learning ability levels and of different genders, based on panel data, by fixed effect model. Results indicate that the overall using time and frequency are high, but with fluctuant in specific use, and the student-driven and complexity use are relatively rare; the types of use are simplex, and mainly focuses on real-time interactive and accessing use; only augment traditional physics learning without transformation; however, has significant impacts on students’ interest and achievements, though varies across levels and gender.
  • Pre-college/Informal and Outreach

      • STEM Ambassadors: An Undergraduate Powered Outreach Program

      • PST2A03
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Edward Price, Charles De Leone, Debbie DeRoma, Chandra Turpen

      • Type: Poster
      • At California State University San Marcos (CSUSM), in the last five years we have reached more than 10,00 students and teachers from local school districts with a K12 outreach program powered by CSUSM undergraduates. The San Diego area, where CSUSM is located, is ethnically diverse and many local K12 students would be first-generation college students. In this context, the outreach program is designed to provide local youth with STEM experiences and connections to near-peer mentors who are positive role models, and, more broadly, foster linkages between the university and community. The undergraduate STEM Ambassadors are highly qualified and ethnically diverse undergraduate science and math majors who lead outreach activities. The program includes sustained efforts such as after school Making programs, and one-shot activities such as classroom demonstrations, STEM Cafes, and campus visits. Program outcomes include increased numbers of students applying and admitted to CSUSM STEM majors (compared to high schools without Ambassadors). Although K12 students are the primary audience, the Ambassadors themselves are positively impacted, including increased technical and leadership skills. This poster describes the STEM Ambassadors program activities and outcomes.
      • Plasma Outreach to Teachers and Students: The DPP Model

      • PST2A05
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Paul Miller
      • Type: Poster
      • For more than 25 years, members of the American Physical Society’s Division of Plasma Physics (DPP) have offered free plasma physics outreach to teachers and students near the location of the annual DPP meeting. This effort is centered on two events. Teachers Day is a day of workshops for secondary teachers. Each teacher attends “Plasma 101” and two more workshops based on interest. Plasma physics is presented not as a new topic to add, but rather a hook by which teachers can enhance topics they already teach. The Plasma Sciences Expo educates busloads of students with interactive science education. Learn about our time-tested approach to outreach at this poster, and consider joining us in San Jose this fall. (This outreach is supported in part by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0012498 and by the APS Division of Plasma Physics.)
      • Repurposing a Cathode Ray Tube to Demonstrate the Photoelectric Effect

      • PST2A02
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by John Avallone
      • Type: Poster
      • This poster presentation will show how a cathode ray tube, laser pointers and an ammeter can be used to demonstrate, in "real life", the photoelectric effect. It is a simple, possibly accessible demonstration of a topic that, in high school classrooms, may otherwise only be heard about and "demonstrated" through PhET applet of the like. I have found it an exciting and attention grabbing "mystery" for my students to solve, that sets the stage for a deeper discussion of the topic.
      • 3D Printing Astronomy Lessons in Minecraft

      • PST2A04
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Natasha Collova, Michele McColgan

      • Type: Poster
      • Minecraft is able to 3D print worlds using a program called Mineways. Withthis program, worlds are selected and exported as an STL file. With this in mind, we will present a Minecraft world where middle school students were asked to scale the entire solar system and build the planets in Minecraft. Their planets were individually printed and the students were asked to spread them out at the scale at which they were printed. The different challenges that students encountered will be described and the results of a pre-and post-survey will be presented.
  • SPS Undergraduate Research and Outreach Poster Session

      • Electromagnetic Field Duality in Light Polarization Using Geometric Algebra

      • SPS01
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Elijah Ryan*, Stephen Rodrigue

      • Type: Poster
      • In the Clifford Algebra of Spacetime, dubbed the Spacetime Algebra, the duality of vectors to trivectors and bivectors to bivectors provides a simple language to formulate the duality of the Electric and Magnetic Fields. The equations of Maxwell that describe these classical fields can, by using Geometric Algebra, be placed in the form of a single field equation in the pseudo-Euclidean four-space of the Spacetime Algebra in place of the two distinct Classical Field Equations formed by the derivatives of the Faraday Tensor and its dual. The duality of bivectors in the four-space can be used to show the orthogonality of the Electromagnetic Field, with specific application in the polarization of light. The Geometric Algebra developed by David Hestenes is applied to take advantage of the directional qualities and simplicity of the Geometric Product in the Spacetime Metric.
      • High Resolution Measurement of Lattice Spacing of a Sodium Chloride Monocrystal Using X-Ray Diffraction

      • SPS02
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Misganaw Getaneh, Jordan Johnson

      • Type: Poster
      • High-energy electrons that are stopped at a Molybdenum surface produce twotypes of x-rays. These are bremsstrahlung x-rays produced through deceleration of electrons and material characteristic x-rays, K-alpha and K-beta emission lines, produced by transitions in the Molybdenum atoms when high-energy electrons hit the surface. A small portion of the x-rays produced at the source goes through a collimator and is scattered by a NaCl monocrystal target. Data of count rate versus target angles was collected for the scattered x-rays for electron accelerating voltage of 35 kV. Analysis of the scattered K-alpha and K-beta lines gives d=280±4 pm for lattice spacing, which is consistent with the literature value d=282.01 pm. The measurement was repeated using a much higher resolution accessory. This gave a much more resolved image of the scattered x-rays. This resulted in lattice spacing d=281.54±1.60 pm.
      • Modeling Acoustic Landmine Detection Using a Soil-Plate Oscillator

      • SPS04
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Joshua Lewis, Miahanna Nguyen, Murray Korman

      • Type: Poster
      • In laboratory acoustic landmine detection experiments a plastic cylindrical drum-like simulant is buried in a soil tank. Sound (generated from subwoofers located above the soil) drives the soil particles causing subsequent particle vibration over the compliant top plate of the simulant. Measurements of surface particle velocity vibration vs. frequency were recorded for various scan locations across the surface in an effort to profile the buried simulant. Resonant behavior can be modeled using a soil-plate-oscillator (SPO) apparatus, which involves a thick-walled cylindrical column of granular material (sand or light density edible materials) supported by a circular acrylic plate clamped to the bottom of the column. A small accelerometer on the granular surface measures tuning curve results across the surface using a sweep spectrum analyzer. Landmine simulant and SPO results are compared to help analyze the behavior of the resonant tuning curves.
      • Newton's Second Law

      • SPS05
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Vincent Coletta, Josh Bernardin, Daniel Pascoe

      • Type: Poster
      • Students pull each other on carts, sheets of plywood that roll on low friction, Rollerblade wheels. One student pulls the cart on which a second student is seated as the cart moves down the hall. The cart is pulled with a rope and spring scale, so that the student who is pulling can monitor the force during the motion. The riding student uses a metronome and marks the floor at one second interval so that the distance traveled as a function of time can be measured. This experiment serves to develop both students' understanding of Newton's Second Law and also their facility with handling multiple variables and their relationships.
      • Nonlinear Vibration Experiment: Clamped Elastic Plate with Granular Material Loading

      • SPS06
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Emily Santos, Murray Korman

      • Type: Poster
      • Experiments using soil-plate-oscillators (SPO) involve a cylindrical column of granular media (masonry sand, glass spheres, uncooked brown rice, un-popped popcorn kernels, or “Toasty Oats” ™ cereal) supported by a circular elastic acrylic plate (20.3 cm diam, 3.2 mm thick) clamped to the bottom of the tube. An AC coil driven by a swept sinusoidal chirp drives a magnet fastened to the underside center of the plate. A spectrum analyzer measures the accelerometer vibration amplitude vs. frequency. The resonant frequency decreases with increasing amplitude – representing softening in the nonlinear system. Experiments involving fixed amplitude resonant frequency vs. mass loading were performed.
      • Particle Physics and Minecraft

      • SPS07
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Amanda Depoian, Michele McColgan

      • Type: Poster
      • At Siena College, the physics department runs a program on Saturdays for inner city middle school students to come to campus and learn about science and the arts. A class was developed for middle school students to learn about particle physics. Hands-on activities, videos, and Minecraft worlds were developed where the students learned about quarks, the makeup of atoms, particle detectors, and particle accelerators. These activities along with the results of a pre- and post-test assessment that measures how well the students learned and retained about particle physics will be presented.
      • Use of Facebook-like Instrument to Teach Photovoltaic Theory Under the Theoretical Framework of Instrumental Genesis

      • SPS08
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Mario Ramirez Diaz, Mario Rodriguez Castillo

      • Type: Poster
      • Facebook is the most popular social network among college students. Its significance has transcended beyond its purpose to the point where is presumed to be able to support a learning environment for teaching physics. The purpose of this research was to investigate if Facebook offers a useful and meaningful educational environment able to support, enhance or strengthen the learning of physics in college students. The research will conduct an experiment in which observable throw achieve identify the concept of students about the use of Facebook as a virtual environment that facilitates learning of physics, identify instrumentative elements developed by students during the use of Facebook as a learning environment in the subject of photovoltaic theory, and identify the significant difference in learning of a group of 40 students in their first year of college. All this under the theoretical framework of Instrumental Genesis.
      • Vibration Experiments: Clamped Elastic Plate with Edible Granular Material Loading

      • SPS10
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Ebonie Smith, Blair Lewis, Murray Korman

      • Type: Poster
      • A soil-plate oscillator (SPO), apparatus, studies flexural vibrations of asoil loaded acrylic plate (8 inch diam, 1/8 inch thick) clamped below a cylindrical tube supporting granular material. An accelerometer attached to a small magnet (below the plate) is used to detect the plate’s vibration. The plate is driven from below by an AC coil using an amplified swept sinusoidal current. The accelerometer signal is measured vs. frequency using a spectrum analyzer. Experiments were performed with uncooked rice, instant oats, popcorn kernels, and pretzel gold fish. Resonant frequency decreases then increases with added granular media due to the material’s stiffness.
      • A Demonstration of Polarization Using a Mach-zehnder Interferometer

      • SPS11
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Adam McKinley
      • Type: Poster
      • The Mach-Zehnder interferometer is a sensitive diagnostic and measurement instrument that makes it ideal for use to measure how temperature changes in gas affect the density and pressure of the gas, and variation of an objects index of refraction. It has additional practical applications in the classroom as a specialized interferometer that has a beam split into two beams with equal amplitude and later recombines before hitting a screen where an interference pattern is observed. However by adding a linear polarizing lens in the path of each beam changes the phase difference between the two respective beams and in turn changes the phase difference of the two beams causing different fringe pattern when observed on a screen and can cause the interference pattern to disappear; however with the use of a third polarizer placed at the output of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer the pattern can be made to reappear.
      • A Soil-Plate-Oscillator Apparatus for Research Projects and Student Demonstrations

      • SPS12
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Melissa Pineda Brown, Brianna Taliaferro, Murray Korman

      • Type: Poster
      • A model apparatus called the “soil-plate-oscillator” is useful in understanding resonant vibration behavior. It is an open column of granular medium supported by a circular clamped plate. A sleeve keeps the soil in the column. The plate is driven from below by a coil located below a magnet (underneath the plate). An amplified swept sinusoidal chirp drives the coil. An accelerometer signal is fed into a spectrum analyzer. Results for masonry sand and glass spheres are compared. Here, the resonant frequency vs. granular mass loading decreases, then increases with further loading due to granular flexural stiffness overcoming the loading effects.
      • Analysis of the Effectiveness of Heat Exchangers on Backpacking Pots

      • SPS13
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Jessalyn Ayars
      • Type: Poster
      • Is a backpacking pot with an attached heat exchanger worth the extra weight? After testing the efficiency of a common design it was found that the weight of fuel saved is greater than the weight of the heat exchanger if the trip is above a certain length. For shorter trips there was no advantage other than shorter cooking times.
      • Between Nature of the Things, Representations and Mathematical Object: The Case of the Scalar and Vector Fields

      • SPS15
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Mario Ramirez Diaz, Eduardo Chávez Lima, Miguel Olvera Aldana

      • Type: Poster
      • Considering physics like a general science, and thus isolating the individual sciences, we sometimes forget interpreting the phenomena by their representations available to the human being. If possible, we sometimes give an explanation of the nature of the "thing," -- to develop a mathematical model that gives formalizing but, How is geometric interpretation? How is described in the regular language? How was made the modeling of phenomena? A fundamental element is how to learn and link these three elements in a regular class, even more if we used it like a mediator tool the technology. In this proposal, we made proofs using an APP in a mobile device to integrate these three elements to teach and learn scalar and vector fields.
      • Between the Nature of the Things, Representations and Mathematical Object: A Case Study, Scalar and Vector Fields

      • SPS16
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Eduardo Chávez Lima, Miguel Olvera Aldana, Mario Ramírez Díaz

      • Type: Poster
      • When considering physics like a general science with universal validity, and therefore isolating the idiographic sciences (or single sciences), we sometimes do not take on account interpreting of the phenomena by their representations affordable to human being. If it's possible, is given an explanation of the nature of the "thing", is built a mathematical model that formalizing it, but, how is interpreted geometrically? How is described the phenomena in regular language? How is the model made? And a fundamental element is How is it learned and linked thee three elements in class? Even more taking the technology like the mediator element in the learning. In this proposal we made proofs with an APP in a mobile device to integrate this three elements to teach Scalar and Vector fields, evaluating the conceptual gain with Hake's factor.
      • Charged Particle Irradiation of Stainless Steel 316L

      • SPS18
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Benjamin Hunt, Alyssa Blumstein, Yaal Dryer, Robert Grosulescu, Michael Zhang

      • Type: Poster
      • Stainless Steel 316L (SST-316L) was irradiated in a charged particle beam,and analyzed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to compare surface defects to conventionally irradiated SST-316L nuclear cladding material. The density of these dislocations from the charged particle irradiated SST-316L were compared to that of the dislocation density of the traditionally irradiated cladding material. Analysis of these dislocations was the primary method used to compare the results of this process to the results of the test-reactor irradiation process.
      • Cheap and Eye-Catching Demo of Young's Double Slit

      • SPS19
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by John Avallone
      • Type: Poster
      • Many images that represent the double-slit interference phenomenon are opaque and indecipherable to those who do not already understand the concept. This extremely simply, hand-made device gives the teacher and the student a way to work through the problem and come to an understanding of the topic that goes beyond the equations and then makes the equations more sensible.
      • Chemically Synthesized Nanostructures Based Solar Cell

      • SPS20
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Gen Long, Michael Beattie, Kenneth Sabalo , Mostafa Sadoqi

      • Type: Poster
      • We fabricate heterojunction solar cell devices using chemically synthesized nanostructures such as nanoparticles and nanowires. The heterojunction solar cell was fabricated with home-made nanostructures, including chemically synthesized narrow gap, IV-VI group semiconductor nanoparticles (PbS or PbSe) of 3~6nm diameter, wide gap semiconductors such as TiO2 nanoparticles (~20nm) or hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires (of 500nm~1 ?m length and 30~50nm diameter), and gold nanoparticles (~5nm to 50nm), by spin-coating (~10cycles) onto FTO/ITO glasses, in ambient conditions (25C, 1atm). The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by XRD, UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer, SEM, AFM, TEM, solar simulator, etc. Nanostructures of variant sizes were integrated into the heterojunction devices to study the effects on photocurrent and solar cell performance. The sizes, lengths, thicknesses of nanostructures were studied. The effects of fabrication conditions (such as growth temperature, growth time, anneal temperature, ligand treatments, in air or in N2, etc.) on device performance were also studied. We have demonstrated that the heterojunction devices with a combination of wide gap and narrow gap semiconductor nanostructures can function for photovoltaic applications. The key challenges are to minimize the trap states and optimize the interface of nanostructures.
      • Interference or Diffraction, Start from LED Decoration Film*

      • SPS21
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Mingchen Sun, Botao Wei, Long Song

      • Type: Poster
      • Interference and diffraction are the two concepts in our high school physics course. In the course we have only the opportunity to discuss the Yang’s double slit interference and Fresnel diffraction. But in our daily life these two concepts are often entangled together so that we cannot distinguish which play the main role. For example, from a series of LED decoration products called decoration film we cannot judge whether it originates from interference or diffraction. Such complicated behaviors motivate us to explore the interference behaviors and the diffraction ones. The talk will focus on the wave optics phenomena and give a step further analysis to various illumination patterns with Virtual Lab software as well as the short but clear principle deduction.
      • How to Make a Stone Skip More

      • SPS22
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Xing Guo, Zhiang Li, Zhihao Niu

      • Type: Poster
      • It is generally known that the stone with a correct incidence angle and an accurate velocity could bounce many times on water. Previous works mainly focus on how to make a flat stone skip more times on water. In this paper, we investigate a new type stone with a curved bottom which can bounce more times and can be more robust during its collision. Analytical model for the motion of the stone is presented. Experiments are conducted at the same time by using an effective stone skipping facility. The minimum skipping velocity indicating the efficiency of a stone is measured by this experiment setup. With the help of this experiment setup, the best stone for skipping on water can be found.
      • Classroom Tools - Vpython

      • SPS23
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Zakary Noel*
      • Type: Poster
      • Making use of modern computing techniques, members of Lee College SPS (newly formed in early 2016) have been working to expand the usability of the programming language Vpython in order to introduce a new type of lab environment to the physics classroom. Vpython is an easy to learn 3D programing tool that bridges principal building blocks of physics together such as calculations, vectors, 3-dimensional space, and derived behaviors. Efforts of the Lee College SPS center on incorporating visual and interactive aids into the program that can be used to better understand how the simple mathematics and relationships coded by students work together to simulate real physical systems. Some applicable subjects include kinematics, electricity and magnetism, waves, and relativity.
      • Mechanical Response of Figure-Eight Knots as Physical Parameters Change

      • SPS24
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Shazhiyuan Li, Junhong Chen, Qi Gu

      • Type: Poster
      • Previous works indicate that the equilibrium shape of the knot is governedby interaction of topology, friction, and bending. We propose a new experiment to study the mechanics of figure-eight knots. Our experiments discover the regularity of the pulling force in response to the increase of crossing numbers and our results do not coincide with former theory of crossing numbers. Our results show universality of many kinds of materials. Different from overhand knots, the figure-eight knots have a new type of mechanical response as the physical and topological parameters change.
      • Mechanical Analysis of the Falling Chimney

      • SPS25
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Zhiang Li, Xing Guo, Zhihao Niu

      • Type: Poster
      • It is generally known that chimneys might break at a certain place before they hit the ground during a demolition blasting. However, previous models have assumed that the mass distribution of the chimney is uniform. The chimney model analyzed in this paper is a more realistic one with non-uniform mass distribution. Furthermore, clay miniatures are used to reproduce the falling process of a chimney. The experiment result is in good agreement with our outlined theory.
      • Compact Model Solutions for HfO2-based RRAM Including Random Telegraph Noise

      • SPS26
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Bochen Guan, Jing Li

      • Type: Poster
      • Read instability in resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, mainly caused by random telegraph noise (RTN), needs to be fully addressed before its wide commercial adoption. To fulfill the increasing need for circuit level reliability study, it is desirable to develop a compact model to account for RTN effect. In prior art, several analytical compact models have been developed to simulate resistive switching behavior [2]. However, none of them are capable of capturing current fluctuation caused by RTN. In this paper, we develop a RRAM compact model for circuit simulation, which for the first time takes into account the RTN effect. The model is validated using different sets of experimental data. Our simulation fits well with measurements both in high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS).
      • Undergraduate Research on Paint-based Organic Solar Cells

      • SPS27
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Kausiksankar Das, Benjamin Barnes

      • Type: Poster
      • In this work, a range of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were made fromanthocyanin-containing biological pigments, synthetic dyes and and perovskite materials. The results and efficiency are compared under various solar illumination conditions. Almost 70% of global energy produced is derived from fossil fuel materials such as coal and oil. The transportation and combustion of coal releases a range of harmful agents such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as carbon nanoparticles. Moreover, carbon emission from the combustion process leads to global warming and climate change. Because of these non-ideal properties, new energy generating technologies have lately been the center of much research. The focus of this research has been on reducing the production costs while simultaneously increasing power conversion efficiency of emerging technologies to a level competitive with fossil fuels. One of the many successful technologies to emerge from this research are high performance solar cells constructed from novel materials. Unfortunately, the power conversion efficiency of established types of solar cells has plateaued while costs continue to rise due to natural resource demand. In response to this, two new generations of solar cells have emerged recently: dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) constructed from inexpensive semiconductor material and readily available organic dyes, and perovskite solar cells made from Earth-abundant minerals. This work investigates the relative efficiency of DSSCs constructed with a variety of biological, synthetic dye based, and perovskite solar cells.
      • Designing and Building a Motorized Gimbal for Space Debris Research

      • SPS28
      • Sun 07/17, 8:00PM - 10:00PM
      • by Miles Moser*, Greg Ojakangas

      • Type: Poster
      • Space debris is a growing global threat to space and telecommunications industries. Medium to large pieces of space debris are difficult to analyze because they have complex rotational properties. On top of that, they’re small and fast, making them hard to see. Our device is a motorized, three-axis gimbal system that can simulate any rotational state through the use of a PID controller, and our project is to suspend actual debris collected from space in the center of the three rings and collect reflection data as it rotates. This will enable us to develop a catalog of light reflection patterns corresponding to different orientations, so ambiguous light patterns observed in a telescope can be associated with distinct rotational states. We built the first prototype of the robot and developed a working PID system to control velocity or position this spring, and will start collecting reflection data in the fall.
  • Teacher Training/Enhancement

      • Helping Prospective and Practicing Elementary Teachers Prepare for the NGSS

      • PST1B01
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Fred Goldberg
      • Type: Poster
      • The "Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking" curriculum (1,2) has been designed to help pre-service and in-service elementary teachers use practices of science and engineering and crosscutting concepts to develop and show understanding of NGSS core disciplinary ideas in physical science. The curriculum materials are modular and are available in two versions: one for studio style classrooms and one for lecture style classrooms. Optional teaching and learning activities help the teachers make connections between their own learning, the learning of elementary children and the NGSS. The online instructor resources provide detailed implementation information and captioned classroom video clips that provide substantive examples of how students learn science in the Next Gen PET environment.
      • Action Research and Design-based Research for Physics Teacher Preparation in Germany: A Case Study

      • PST1B03
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Joseph Heimburger, Jennifer Lorbach, Dan MacIsaac, André Bresges

      • Type: Poster
      • We describe preparations and initial pilot activity undertaken in collaboration with pre-service physics teacher, their instructors and mentors at the Universität zu Köln making use of Design Based Research and Action Research methods. A literature review was prepared to inform and guide our scholarly exchanges creating a Transatlantic Design Based Research / Action Research Network for physics teacher preparation in German and U.S. schools. AR projects have been used in the U.S. for teacher development, but not yet in Germany. We present data collected during a pilot study conducted on graduate student exchange visiting Cologne, Germany January – February 2015 and June 2015. The study follows one preservice teacher through the “Praxissemester”, during which she developed classroom activities and assessed them in an AR/DBR format. We report her findings and discuss the appropriateness of using AR/DBR in the context of the German Praxissemester. This research was supported by the Noyce Foundation.
      • ATE Workshop for Physics Faculty Project

      • PST1B05
      • Mon 07/18, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Thomas O'Kuma, Dwain Desbien

      • Type: Poster
      • The ATE Workshop for Physics Faculty project is into its final year and has finished all of the scheduled workshops/conferences. In this poster, we will display information about the 15 workshops that were held since the first one, conducted in 2011.
      • 8.Mech.CCx: A Customized Open Online Course for Flipping the AP Physics C Classroom

      • PST1B02
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Zhongzhou Chen, Christopher Chudzicki, Sunbok Lee, David Pritchard

      • Type: Poster
      • The RELATE.MIT.edu group at MIT is offering our audited College Board AP Clevel physics MOOC, 8.MechCx Introductory Mechanics, as a free Custom Course on edX.org (CCX) for high school or college instructors. “Custom Course” (CCX) is a new feature of the edX platform that allows individual instructors to assign resources (problems, videos, texts) chosen from our MOOC to their own students according to their own schedule. This course features over 1000 high-quality problems at different levels of difficulty, over 370 pages of e-text written and edited by MIT faculty based on PER research, as well as interactive online simulations, labs based on Direct Measurement Videos created by Peter Bohacek and simple “build it yourself” laboratories. I will demonstrate the CCX course, show how to enroll your own students, assign resources, set due dates and view student progress.
      • An Apprentice Teacher and Student’s Perspective on Computer Problem-Solving Coaches

      • PST1B04
      • Mon 07/18, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Jeffrey Chaffin*
      • Type: Poster
      • As both an upper-division undergraduate physics student as well as a Teaching Assistant for introductory physics courses, I have a unique perspective on the teaching and learning of problem-solving skills. Last summer, I worked with the Physics Education Research and Development group at the University of Minnesota to design and code several computer coaches using their C3PO software platform, which uses the Minnesota problem-solving framework. Designing the coaches both informed the way in which I taught introductory physics and transformed my own learning process in my more advanced coursework and I will share my experiences and lessons learned. Not only are the C3PO computer coaches an excellent tool for introductory students, but they also have secondary benefits for instructors who use it to design problems that fit into their curriculum.
  • Technologies

      • Five Smartphone Physics Lessons for Teaching NGSS' DCI Forces and Motion

      • PST2E01
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Rebecca Vieyra, Chrystian Vieyra, Philippe Jeanjacquot, Arturo Marti, Martin Monteiro

      • Type: Poster
      • This poster presents five challenges that you can use with your students in the classroom or at home to engage them in understanding force and motion as one component of the Next Generation Science Standards. Learn how to use your smartphone to (1) measure acceleration due to gravity, (2) estimate force on your body in an elevator, (3) directly measure acceleration on an Atwood's machine, (4) measure centripetal acceleration and tangential velocity while dancing, and (5) locate the accelerometer inside of your smartphone using a record player. Additional resources for smartphone labs will be provided.
      • Introducing Coarse-Graining Part 1: From Molecular Dynamics to Random Walks

      • PST2E03
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Edit Yerushalmi, Haim Edri, Bat-Sheva Eylon, Samuel Safran, Nava Schulmann

      • Type: Poster
      • Applying physics to understand structure formation in chemical and biological systems often requires coarse-graining which averages over the short time and length scales of the system. This allows one to focus on a more limited number of degrees of freedom. We present an instructional sequence intended to introduce this concept to introductory level students. The sequence involves comparison between several computational models for diffusion differing in their length and time scales. At the shortest scales one can treat all the interacting particles in the many-body system using deterministic mechanical laws (Molecular Dynamics). While this provides complete information, coarse-grained models are needed to reduce complexity and to obtain physical intuition: In the Langevin model, where the mechanical laws are applied only to the colloidal particles while the solvent is accounted for by friction and stochastic forces. At even larger scales, random walk on a lattice model, involving only the colloidal particles.
      • Making iPad Videos to Learn Physics

      • PST2E05
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Andrew Roberts, Dan MacIsaac, David Abbott, Florian Genz

      • Type: Poster
      • We describe the development of the iPad video physics project at SUNY Buffalo State College over the past year. Beginning in summer 2015, graduate students and in-service teachers were tasked with explaining concepts and/or experiments through the creation of short videos, labeled physics content multimedia presentations. These bear many similarities to videos on the YouTube channels minutephysics and Veritasium, but are not meant to achieve the same production quality. Conceptual learning is the intention of the assignment, not a professional video. Instead, videos are produced on the iPads using filming, editing, and voiceover features of apps like iMovie and iMotion. We will present and discuss suggestions, rubrics, guidance, and lessons learned for teachers wishing to assign and evaluate expository physics videos produced by students for credit. This work was supported by the NSF, SUNY IITG and the University of Cologne as well as SUNY Buffalo State Physics.
      • Practical Application of a Web-based Personal Response System

      • PST2E07
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Joseph Fritchman*, Zhao Fu, Jing Han, Lei Bao

      • Type: Poster
      • Students increasingly attend classes with Internet-connected devices (cellphones, tablets, laptops) which allow teachers to readily implement easy to use, web-based personal response systems. This study examines the use of web-based clickers in college physics lectures and comments on the practical application of such systems. An ideal web-based system will be much more cost-effective than requiring students or departments to purchase physical clickers, while requiring minimal setup time for both teachers and students, and achieving similar improvement on students’ conceptual learning when compared to traditional clickers. These systems also open the possibility of more question and answer formats with quicker personal and class-wide feedback than previously feasible. Results help to suggest how to implement web-based systems in the classroom.
      • A New App for Physics Simulations

      • PST2E09
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Sonia Tye, Byron Philhour, Neeru Khosla

      • Type: Poster
      • In collaboration with physics teachers, animators, and software developers, the nonprofit cK-12 Foundation has generated dozens of new free-to-use tablet and laptop-ready HTML5-based interactive physics simulations. Recently, we have released an app for mobile tablets that allows easy access to the simulations. Our goal for each simulation is to build a bridge between compelling real-world situations and the more abstract and mathematical physics descriptions. These sims are appropriate for middle school, high school, and introductory college level physics. Topical coverage is broad, from motion and mechanics to electricity and magnetism, sound and light, and modern physics. Our physics sims are based in engaging, real-world examples, big questions, a playful interactive sandbox, data graphs, and novel modes of instructional feedback. This poster presentation is one part of our efforts to engage in a discussion with the physics education community about how best this work can be used to facilitate both classroom-based and independent instruction, foster interest in science, challenge misconceptions, and support best practices in online learning.
      • Between Nature of the Things, Representations and Mathematical Object: The Case of the Scalar and Vector Fields

      • PST2E11
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Eduardo Chávez Lima, Miguel Olvera Aldana, Mario Humberto Ramírez Díaz

      • Type: Poster
      • When we consider physics like a general science, and thus isolate the individual sciences, we sometimes forget it interpreting the phenomena by their representations available to the human being. If it's possible, we sometimes give as an explanation of the nature of the "thing," is to develop a mathematical model that gives formalizing but: How is geometric interpretation? How is it described in the regular language? How was the modeling of phenomena made? A fundamental element is how it is learned and linked thee three elements in a regular class, even more if we use the technology like a mediator tool. In this proposal, we made proofs using an App in a mobile device to integrate the three elements to teach and learn scalar and vector fields.
      • Use of Facebook to Teach Photovoltaic

      • PST2E13
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Mario Ramirez Diaz, Mario Rodriguez Castillo

      • Type: Poster
      • Facebook is the most popular social network among college students. Its significance has transcended beyond its purpose to the point where it is presumed to be able to support a learning environment for teaching physics. The purpose of this research was to investigate if Facebook offers a useful and meaningful educational environment able to support, enhance, or strengthen the learning of physics in college students. The research will conduct an experiment to identify the concept of students about the use of Facebook as a virtual environment that facilitates learning of physics, identify instrumentative elements developed by students during the use of Facebook as a learning environment in the subject of photovoltaic theory, and identify the significant difference in learning of a group of 40 students in their first year of college. All this under the theoretical framework of Instrumental Genesis.
      • ggrade: Using Google Forms and Python to Administer/Grade Quizzes

      • PST2E02
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Sara Mahar*, Matthew Bellis

      • Type: Poster
      • Providing prompt feedback to students on exams and quizzes is important not just so students can quickly evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, but also feel that the instructor is actively engaged in the assessment process. Delays between assignments/quizzes and receiving a grade can lead to frustration and a tendency to "check out" on the part of the students. However, this can take time, which is often in short supply. One way to tackle this problem is to move these assessments to an online environment, but the cost of some current solutions, combined with clunky interfaces, can make this frustrating for the instructor. As an alternative, we have created "ggrade," a set of Python libraries and scripts that grade online assignments administered via Google Forms, and supplemented by features in Google Apps for Education. We discuss the implementation and our experience with its use in the classroom.
      • iPads in Intro Labs

      • PST2E04
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by David Abbott, Dan MacIsaac, Andrew Roberts

      • Type: Poster
      • Over the last year, Buffalo State College has included video analysis labsusing iPads in introductory physics courses. Students took and analyzed data using Vernier’s Video Physics and Graphical Analysis for iPad. Lab topics include 1-d kinematics, force and rotational dynamics. We report student learning, instructor feedback, challenges (some with solutions) and lessons learned. This work is supported by SUNY IITG and Buffalo State College.
      • Moving Phones Tick Slower

      • PST2E06
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Bret Underwood, Yunxiao Zhai

      • Type: Poster
      • Smartphones and tablets are packed with sensors, essentially making them mobile physics labs. Simple app creation environments, such as MIT’s App Inventor, can put the ability to create and configure physics apps within the reach of students. We discuss the use of App Inventor to create an Android app, “Time Dilation Calculator,” which uses a mobile device’s Global Positioning System receiver to calculate the time dilation effect of special relativity. As an illustration, we used the app to demonstrate the so-called “twin-paradox” experiment: one mobile device was left stationary, while another traveled some distance in a car and returned. When the phones were reunited, the travelling phone accumulated 0.2 picoseconds less time. This simple app provides a tangible introduction to time dilation as well as an illustration of the power of smartphones for physics.
      • The Evolution of VPython

      • PST2E08
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Bruce Sherwood, Ruth Chabay

      • Type: Poster
      • VPython, a very accessible 3D programming environment, has been used for the past 16 years by physics students in introductory and advanced courses, by physics instructors, and by physics researchers to construct dynamic 3D computational models of physical systems. Recent developments in the computer world, including the dominant role of browsers and the increasing capabilities of GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), have stimulated further development of VPython. Two new versions of VPython will soon replace the older “Classic” VPython. GlowScript VPython requires no installation, and many introductory physics students now use it to write and run VPython programs in a browser. Jupyter VPython runs in the increasingly popular professional IPython environment and displays 3D animations in a browser-based Jupyter notebook. The full Python ecology is available to Jupyter VPython, which is easily added to either the Anaconda or Canopy Python distributions.
      • Assessing Student Work Beyond the Final Answer, Electronically

      • PST2E10
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Thomas Foster, Eddie Ackad

      • Type: Poster
      • PathPlan (tm) is an electronic Android(c) based .app designed to let students solve problems in a quasi guided environment. Feedback can be provided to the teacher about the solution path the students took to solve he problem. This is much more detail than providing only the answer. Please stop by the poster and we can show you the .app and maybe you can help us beta test it.
      • Learning of Biot-Savart Law Using the Project-based Learning Methodology and Development of Experimental Prototypes in Mexico

      • PST2E12
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Lilia Teresa Carrera de Anda, Mario Ramírez Díaz

      • Type: Poster
      • In this work we present the results of educational research to measure theeffectiveness of learning the Biot-Savart law using the Project-based Learning methodology and development of experimental prototypes. The objective of the research is measurement of the learning effectiveness in Electromechanical and Mechatronics Engineering students from Instituto Tecnologico de Parral. The investigation was carried out with Mechatronics Engineering students who served as an experimental group and Electromechanical Engineering students as a control group, both groups of trainees subject of Electromagnetism. 27 items of an instrument that was used in investigations by Guisasola and Almudi were used. In assessing the results, the Hake factor was introduced to determine the gain in both the experimental group and the control. The analysis results show that the Project-based Learning and development of experimental prototypes is a good method of teaching the Biot-Savart law on the subject of Electromagnetism and the "physical make" favors understanding and building concepts.
  • Upper Division and Graduate

      • Development of an Interactive Tutorial on Quantum Key Distribution

      • PST2D01
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Seth DeVore, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • We describe the development of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) on quantum key distribution, a context that involves a practical application of quantum mechanics. The QuILT helps upper-level undergraduate students learn quantum mechanics using a simple two-state system and was developed based upon the findings of cognitive research and physics education research. One protocol used in the QuILT involves generating a random shared key over a public channel for encrypting and decrypting information using single photons with non-orthogonal polarization states, and another protocol makes use of two entangled spin-½ particles. The QuILT uses a guided approach and focuses on helping students build links between the formalism and conceptual aspects of quantum physics without compromising the technical content. We also discuss findings from a preliminary in-class evaluation. Supported by the NSF
      • Improving Student Understanding of Addition of Angular Momentum in QM

      • PST2D03
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Jue Wang, Guangtian Zhu, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related addition of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation shows that the QuILT related to the basics of the addition of angular momentum is helpful in improving students’ understanding of these concepts.
      • Investigating Transfer of Knowledge in an Upper-Level Quantum Mechanics Course*

      • PST2D05
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Alexandru Maries, Ryan Sayer, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • Transfer of learning from one context to another is considered a hallmark of expertise. Physics education research has often found that students have great difficulty transferring knowledge from one context to another. We examine upper-level and graduate students’ facility with questions about the interference pattern in the double-slit experiment with single photons and polarizers in various orientations placed in front of one or both slits. Answering these questions correctly in the context of the double-slit experiment requires transfer of knowledge of concepts students had learned in the context of a tutorial on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) with single photons and polarizers in various paths of MZI. We discuss the extent to which students who worked through the MZI tutorial were able to transfer their knowledge gained in that context to another context involving the double-slit experiment.
      • Neural Networks and Matlab Algorithms for Pattern Recognition in Databases*

      • PST2D07
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Raul Garcia-Sanchez, Daniel Casimir, Prabhakar Misra, Gary Ackerman, Markus Binder

      • Type: Poster
      • Our research makes use of physical and mathematical approaches to pattern recognition associated with large databases pertaining to terrorism-related events. The comprehensive databases (e.g. GTD, POICN & PIRUS) developed by START at the University of Maryland contain a wide array of information and variables and our research was aimed at not only finding potential patterns in this data, but also developed a way to address missing variable data entries. Our Matlab script driven efforts focused on three fronts: (1) the improvement of pattern recognition neural network computation times and classifications, (2) the development of an algorithm that uses a nested approach to determine as much missing data for all variables as possible, and (3) the development of an user interface that allows users to make queries and perform pattern recognition operations on selected variables.
      • Self Perception of Undergraduate and Graduate Students as Educators

      • PST2D09
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Alexander Becker, Bennett Goldberg, Manher Jariwala

      • Type: Poster
      • At Boston University, CIRTL promotes graduate student involvement with the"Teaching Fellow Peer Mentoring” program (TFPM) and the "Teaching as Research" fellowship (TAR). The TFPM is a student-run program within the physics department, supporting incoming students during their first steps in graduate school and in their teaching mission. As a mentee in my first year and a mentor in my second year of graduate school at BU, I offer a perspective on the benefits and challenges of this program. Using these experiences, I have designed a Teaching-as-Research project examining the perception teaching assistants and undergraduate learning assistants have of themselves in their roles as educators. I will present the process of conceiving and developing this project within the framework of TAR seminars as well as first results of this still ongoing research.
      • Visualizing the Electromagnetic Field with Differential Forms

      • PST2D11
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Roberto Salgado, Tobias Nelson

      • Type: Poster
      • Although vector calculus has been the traditional mathematical tool for electromagnetism, some authors (Deschamps [1981], Burke [1985], Bamberg and Sternberg [1988], Warnick [1995], Hehl [2003]) have advocated the use of differential forms. We review how the electromagnetic field and the Maxwell Equations are formulated and visualized with differential forms in three-dimensional space. We then present our attempt to show how this arises from differential forms in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime.
      • Comparing Chinese and American Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

      • PST2D13
      • Tue 07/19, 5:00PM - 5:45PM
      • by Jue Wang, Guangtian Zhu

      • Type: Poster
      • This poster discusses a comparative study on American and Chinese students’ conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. We administered the Quantum Mechanics Survey (QMS) to 200 students in China and the United States. The results show that the students in the top-ranking U.S. universities outweigh their peers in the top-ranking Chinese universities. However, those in medium-ranking universities in both China and the U.S. have similar performance in QMS.
      • Flipping an Upper Division Electricity and Magnetism Course

      • PST2D02
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by James Butler
      • Type: Poster
      • The upper division Electricity & Magnetism course at Pacific University has been "flipped" so that students watch lecture videos as part of their pre-class work. Additional pre-class work includes traditional textbook reading assignments and "web warm-ups" (a form of Just-in-Time Teaching). Class time is spent on active engagement strategies, such as tutorials and Peer Instruction, and as recitation time for homework help. The course also has a laboratory component in which students do a variety of inquiry-based labs as well as an extensive project. The Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics (CUE) Diagnostic Quiz has been administered in multiple class sections. Preliminary results show significant gains in a ‘flipped’ section compared to ‘regular’ sections.
      • Improving Students’ Understanding of Quantum Measurement

      • PST2D04
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Jue Wang, Guangtian Zhu, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • We describe the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement within the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. We explore the possible origins of these difficulties by analyzing student responses to questions from both surveys and interviews. Results from this research are applied to develop research-based learning tutorials to improve students’ understanding of quantum measurement.
      • Picturing Quantum Mechanics

      • PST2D08
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Daniel Schroeder
      • Type: Poster
      • Dirac saw no need for illustrations in his definitive monograph on quantummechanics, and Weinberg has continued this tradition in his new graduate-level textbook. For us mortals, though, pictures are essential--and the pictures we give to our students can guide their conceptual understanding. But what are the essential images that encapsulate the concepts of quantum mechanics? In this poster I will collect some of the best candidates, and document which ones are getting the prominence they deserve and which ones aren't.
      • Tutorials on Thinking about Quantum Entities*

      • PST2D10
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Erin Ronayne Sohr, Jessica Hoy, Benjamin Dreyfus, Kathleen Hinko, Noah Finkelstein

      • Type: Poster
      • We have developed a set of tutorials at the University of Maryland and theUniversity of Colorado, to support students in transforming their ontological conceptions about quantum phenomena: their sense of whether something is a particle, a wave, or some other kind of thing. In addition, the tutorials are intended to support students’ metacognitive awareness of their own ontological conceptions: thinking about their own thinking, and deciding which ontologies to use when. In most cases these tutorials are not designed to introduce new content, but can be used alongside other course materials and can help students be more reflective about the physics content. Some of the tutorials are based on fundamental quantum concepts such as tunneling, while others are based on engineering applications such as LEDs.
      • Can Classical Mechanics Tutorials Help Approach Other Upper-Level Courses?

      • PST2D12
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Andrew Mason
      • Type: Poster
      • Several excellent research-based tutorials exist for upper-level undergraduate physics topics, e.g. quantum mechanics and thermodynamics. It may therefore be particularly useful to consider the design of tutorials for classical mechanics, a course that discusses topics that may be bridged into conceptual and mathematical methods topics (e.g. Hamiltonian transformations, Fourier series, tensor mechanics) which are referenced in other upper-level physics courses. Initial tutorials of mechanics courses, modeled after lessons within Taylor’s “Classical Mechanics” text [1], are currently under development for the purposes of improving conceptual understanding and mathematical methods techniques featured within the text. Future considerations from background literature in research-based tutorials and other mechanics tutorials, are being consulted to improve instruction and better inform pedagogical goals.
      • Core Graduate Courses: A Missed Learning Opportunity?*

      • PST2D14
      • Tue 07/19, 5:45PM - 6:30PM
      • by Alexandru Maries, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Poster
      • An important goal of graduate physics core courses is to help students develop expertise in problem solving and improve their reasoning and meta-cognitive skills. We explore the conceptual difficulties of physics graduate students by administering conceptual problems on topics covered in undergraduate physics courses before and after instruction in related first-year core graduate courses. Here, we focus on physics graduate students' difficulties manifested by their performance on two qualitative problems involving diagrammatic representation of vector fields. Some graduate students had great difficulty in recognizing whether the diagrams of the vector fields had divergence and/or curl but they had no difficulty computing the divergence and curl of the vector fields mathematically. We also conducted individual discussions with various faculty members who regularly teach first year graduate physics core courses about the goals of these courses and the performance of graduate students on the conceptual problems after related instruction in core courses. *Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

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